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PURPOSE OF REVIEW Macrophage activation syndrome is a life-threatening complication seen predominantly in children with systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. It accounts for a significant amount of the morbidity and mortality seen with systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. RECENT FINDINGS In this article, we will look at the new(More)
BACKGROUND Inadequate phosphorus control is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD stage 5. Although phosphate binders are often used in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD), no large randomized controlled studies evaluating their use solely in this population have previously been reported. METHODS In this multicentre,(More)
Entero-haemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen, responsible for a relatively small number of food poisoning and illness outbreaks each year, when compared with other food-borne bacteria capable of causing infections in the population. Nevertheless, E. coli O157:H7 is a bacterial pathogen associated with severe human illnesses including(More)
BACKGROUND A 13-year-old girl presented with features typical of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, including fever, rash and arthritis. Her past medical history was unremarkable. INVESTIGATIONS Routine investigations, including CBC, serological tests for urea and electrolyte levels, tests of liver function and clotting, measurement of erythrocyte(More)
The concentrations of intracellular solutes in Listeria monocytogenes were examined in cells grown at various concentrations of NaCl. At 5% NaCl, cells contained elevated concentrations of potassium and glycine betaine compared with concentrations in cells grown without NaCl. At 7.5% NaCl, cells contained increased concentrations of K+, glycine betaine,(More)
When Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11351 was grown microaerobically in rich medium at 39 degrees C, entry into stationary phase was followed by a rapid decline in viable numbers to leave a residual population of 1% of the maximum number or less. Loss of viability was preceded by sublethal injury, which was seen as a loss of the ability to grow on media(More)
Uptake of [14C]glycine-betaine by Listeria monocytogenes was stimulated by NaCl with optimal stimulation at 0.4-0.5 M. The glycine-betaine transport system had a Km of 22 microM and a Vmax of 11.7 nmol-1 min-1 mg-1 protein when grown in the absence of NaCl. When grown in the presence of 0.8 M NaCl the Vmax increased to 27.0 nmol-1 min-1 mg-1 protein in 0.8(More)
A two electrode system mounted as a single probe was developed to measure electrochemically the rate of reduction of a redox mediator (thionine) by bacteria. The system gave a rapid (2 min) bacterial-dependent current above 2.5 x 10(5) cfu/ml with pure cultures of bacteria, but when applied to the measurement of the bacterial contamination in samples of(More)
During the stationary phase of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11351 viable numbers fluctuate in a characteristic fashion. After reaching the maximum cell count (ca. 2 x 10(9) CFU/ml) in early stationary phase (denoted phase 1), viable numbers subsequently decrease to about 10(6) CFU/ml after 48 h and then increase again to about 10(8) CFU/ml (denoted phase 2)(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, natural products have been evaluated as sources of antimicrobial agents with efficacies against a variety of micro-organisms. METHODS This report describes the antimicrobial activities of pomegranate rind extract (PRE) singularly and in combination with cupric sulphate against methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus(More)