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OBJECTIVE To see if the mortality risk among women who have used oral contraceptives differs from that of never users. DESIGN Prospective cohort study started in 1968 with mortality data supplied by participating general practitioners, National Health Service central registries, or both. SETTING 1400 general practices throughout the United Kingdom. (More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the absolute risks or benefits on cancer associated with oral contraception, using incident data. DESIGN Inception cohort study. SETTING Royal College of General Practitioners' oral contraception study. PARTICIPANTS Directly standardised data from the Royal College of General Practitioners' oral contraception study. MAIN OUTCOME(More)
BACKGROUND Each year, 10%-20% of patients with tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries present with previously treated TB and are empirically started on a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended standardized retreatment regimen. The effectiveness of this retreatment regimen has not been systematically evaluated. METHODS AND FINDINGS From(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic pain is recognised as an important problem in the community but our understanding of the epidemiology of chronic pain remains limited. We undertook a study designed to quantify and describe the prevalence and distribution of chronic pain in the community. METHODS A random sample of 5036 patients, aged 25 and over, was drawn from 29(More)
Little is known about the course of chronic pain in the community. Such information is needed for the prevention and management of chronic pain. We undertook a 4-year follow-up study of 2184 individuals living in Grampian, UK to describe patterns and predictors of change in chronic pain over time. In October 2000, participants completed a postal(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic pain is a common problem affecting about half of the general population. This has implications for the utilization of both conventional and alternative health services. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine the use of conventional and alternative practitioners and medicines amongst individuals with chronic pain in the(More)
BACKGROUND Recent changes in UK primary care have increased the range of services and healthcare professionals available for advice. Furthermore, the UK government has promoted greater use of both self-care and the wider primary care team for managing symptoms indicative of self-limiting illness. We do not know how the public has been responding to these(More)
BACKGROUND Allergy is commoner in developed than in developing countries. Chronic worm infections show inverse associations with allergy, and prenatal exposures may be critical to allergy risk. OBJECTIVE To determine whether anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy increases the risk of allergy in infancy. METHODS A randomised, double-blind,(More)
BACKGROUND The symptom iceberg describes the phenomenon that most symptoms are managed in the community without people seeking professional health care. The size of the iceberg for many symptoms is unknown, as is their association with personal characteristics, including history of a chronic disease. AIM To ascertain the size of the symptom iceberg in the(More)
BACKGROUND Disparities in perinatal health care occur worldwide. If the UN Millennium Development Goals in maternal and child health are to be met, this needs to be addressed. This study was conducted to facilitate our understanding of the changing use of maternity care services in a semi-urban community in Entebbe Uganda and to examine the range of(More)