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BACKGROUND Each year, 10%-20% of patients with tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries present with previously treated TB and are empirically started on a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended standardized retreatment regimen. The effectiveness of this retreatment regimen has not been systematically evaluated. METHODS AND FINDINGS From(More)
Parasitic helminths have co-evolved with the mammalian immune system. Current hypotheses suggest that immunological stimulation in the presence of helminths is balanced by immuno-regulation and by the broad spectrum of mechanisms possessed by helminths for countering the host immune response. The degree to which this balance is perfected, and the mechanisms(More)
OBJECTIVE To see if the mortality risk among women who have used oral contraceptives differs from that of never users. DESIGN Prospective cohort study started in 1968 with mortality data supplied by participating general practitioners, National Health Service central registries, or both. SETTING 1400 general practices throughout the United Kingdom. (More)
BACKGROUND Chronic pain is recognised as an important problem in the community but our understanding of the epidemiology of chronic pain remains limited. We undertook a study designed to quantify and describe the prevalence and distribution of chronic pain in the community. METHODS A random sample of 5036 patients, aged 25 and over, was drawn from 29(More)
Little is known about the course of chronic pain in the community. Such information is needed for the prevention and management of chronic pain. We undertook a 4-year follow-up study of 2184 individuals living in Grampian, UK to describe patterns and predictors of change in chronic pain over time. In October 2000, participants completed a postal(More)
BACKGROUND Recent changes in UK primary care have increased the range of services and healthcare professionals available for advice. Furthermore, the UK government has promoted greater use of both self-care and the wider primary care team for managing symptoms indicative of self-limiting illness. We do not know how the public has been responding to these(More)
BACKGROUND Allergy is commoner in developed than in developing countries. Chronic worm infections show inverse associations with allergy, and prenatal exposures may be critical to allergy risk. OBJECTIVE To determine whether anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy increases the risk of allergy in infancy. METHODS A randomised, double-blind,(More)
BACKGROUND Disparities in perinatal health care occur worldwide. If the UN Millennium Development Goals in maternal and child health are to be met, this needs to be addressed. This study was conducted to facilitate our understanding of the changing use of maternity care services in a semi-urban community in Entebbe Uganda and to examine the range of(More)
Our understanding of the natural history of chronic pain in the community is limited. This is partly due to the lack of a validated measure of chronic pain severity known to be responsive to change over time. The Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire has been shown to be valid and reliable for use in a general population as a self-completion questionnaire.(More)
BACKGROUND Helminth infections affect the human immune response. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to and treatment of maternal helminth infections affects development of an infant's immune response to immunisations and unrelated infections. METHODS In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled 2507 women in the second or(More)