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BACKGROUND Chronic pain is known to be very common in the community. Less is known about the epidemiology of more significant or severe chronic pain. The impact of chronic pain in the community, in terms of general health, employment and interference with daily activity, has not been quantified. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to describe the(More)
BACKGROUND Helminth infections during pregnancy may be associated with adverse outcomes, including maternal anemia, low birth weight, and perinatal mortality. Deworming during pregnancy has therefore been strongly advocated, but its benefits have not been rigorously evaluated. METHODS In Entebbe, Uganda, 2507 pregnant women were recruited to a randomized,(More)
Two hundred and forty-nine patients with tuberculosis were recruited to a cohort study to investigate the interaction between tuberculosis and HIV in Lusaka, Zambia; findings at presentation are presented here. One hundred and eighty-two (73%; 95% confidence interval 67-79%) of the cases were HIV-1 antibody positive. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the absolute risks or benefits on cancer associated with oral contraception, using incident data. DESIGN Inception cohort study. SETTING Royal College of General Practitioners' oral contraception study. PARTICIPANTS Directly standardised data from the Royal College of General Practitioners' oral contraception study. MAIN OUTCOME(More)
OBJECTIVE To see if the mortality risk among women who have used oral contraceptives differs from that of never users. DESIGN Prospective cohort study started in 1968 with mortality data supplied by participating general practitioners, National Health Service central registries, or both. SETTING 1400 general practices throughout the United Kingdom. (More)
BACKGROUND Chronic pain is recognised as an important problem in the community but our understanding of the epidemiology of chronic pain remains limited. We undertook a study designed to quantify and describe the prevalence and distribution of chronic pain in the community. METHODS A random sample of 5036 patients, aged 25 and over, was drawn from 29(More)
BACKGROUND A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted to estimate the efficacy of preventive therapy for tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected adults in Lusaka, Zambia. The main outcome measures were the incidence of TB, mortality and adverse drug reactions. METHODS During a 2 year period, 1053 HIV-positive individuals without evidence(More)
Split hand foot malformation (SHFM) also known as central ray deficiency, ectrodactyly and cleft hand/foot, is one of the most complex of limb malformations. SHFM can occur as an isolated malformation or in association with other malformations, as in the ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting (EEC) syndrome and other autosomal dominant conditions with(More)
SETTING Out-patient clinic, Entebbe, Uganda. BACKGROUND It has been proposed that 'type 1' cytokines are essential in protective immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that suppression of 'type 1' or a switch to a 'type 2' profile is deleterious. We employed a simple assay to examine whether the dependence of the immunological responses to(More)
Parasitic helminths have co-evolved with the mammalian immune system. Current hypotheses suggest that immunological stimulation in the presence of helminths is balanced by immuno-regulation and by the broad spectrum of mechanisms possessed by helminths for countering the host immune response. The degree to which this balance is perfected, and the mechanisms(More)