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The process of adaptation is the result of stabilising selection caused by two opposite forces: protection against an unfavourable season (survival adaptation), and effective use of growing resources (capacity adaptation). As plant species have evolved different life strategies based on different trade offs between survival and capacity adaptations,(More)
Front cover: Ana Cristina with her newborn daughter Tainá, at hospital in Petrolina, Brazil. After Tainá was born premature, nurses helped Ana Cristina to breastfeed and look after her daughter. Tainá put on weight and made good progress. (Photo: genna naccache/Save the Children) superfood FOR BABIES How overcoming barriers to breastfeeding will save(More)
The promutagenic process known as translesion DNA synthesis reflects the ability of a DNA polymerase to misinsert a nucleotide opposite a damaged DNA template. To study the underlying mechanism of nucleotide selection during this process, we quantified the incorporation of various non-natural nucleotide analogs opposite an abasic site, a non-templating DNA(More)
This research demonstrates that inadequate chilling has the potential to slow both the rate and speed of bud burst of two important European forest species; Betula pubescens and Populus tremula. The timing of bud burst in deciduous trees has been widely used as an indicator of spring warming. However, winter chilling conditions can have a significant impact(More)
Phenology, the study of the timing of recurring life cycle events, has gained global scientifi c recognition in recent years as it demonstrates how ecosystems are responding to climate change. However, in Ireland the systematic recording of phenological events has not been traditionally undertaken. Here we present some recently rediscovered historic(More)
Impact indicators are systems/organisms, the vitality of which alters in response to changes in environmental condition. The indicators assessed in this review fall within the impact category of the driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework. Instrumental records have shown unequivocal changes in climatic conditions over the past 30 years at a(More)
Ireland's geographic location on the western fringe of the European continent, together with its island status and impoverished avifauna, provides a unique opportunity to observe changes in bird migration and distribution patterns in response to changing climatic conditions. Spring temperatures have increased in western Europe over the past 30 years in line(More)
Translesion DNA synthesis represents the ability of a DNA polymerase to misinsert a nucleotide opposite a DNA lesion. Previous kinetic studies of the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase using a series of non-natural nucleotides suggest that pi-electron density of the incoming nucleotide substantially contributes to the efficiency of incorporation opposite an(More)
Effective ecosystem functioning relies on successful species interaction. However, this delicate balance may be disrupted if species do not respond to environmental change at a similar rate. Here we examine trends in the timing of spring phenophases of groups of species occupying three trophic levels as a potential indicator of ecosystem response to climate(More)