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The phytohormone auxin controls processes such as cell elongation, root hair development and root branching. Tropisms, growth curvatures triggered by gravity, light and touch, are also auxin-mediated responses. Auxin is synthesized in the shoot apex and transported through the stem, but the molecular mechanism of auxin transport is not well understood.(More)
Auxin transport is required for important growth and developmental processes in plants, including gravity response and lateral root growth. Several lines of evidence suggest that reversible protein phosphorylation regulates auxin transport. Arabidopsis rcn1 mutant seedlings exhibit reduced protein phosphatase 2A activity and defects in differential cell(More)
When brassinosteroid levels are low, the GSK3-like kinase BIN2 phosphorylates and inactivates the BZR1 transcription factor to inhibit growth in plants. Brassinosteroid promotes growth by inducing dephosphorylation of BZR1, but the phosphatase that dephosphorylates BZR1 has remained unknown. Here, using tandem affinity purification, we identified protein(More)
Auxin is transported through plant tissues, moving from cell to cell in a unique polar manner. Polar auxin transport controls important growth and developmental processes in higher plants. Recent studies have identified several proteins that mediate polar auxin transport and have shown that some of these proteins are asymmetrically localized, paving the way(More)
Reversible protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism governing polar auxin transport. We characterized the auxin transport and gravitropic phenotypes of the pinoid-9 (pid-9) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation mediated by PID kinase and dephosphorylation regulated by the ROOTS CURL IN(More)
The heterotrimeric protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) complex comprises a catalytic subunit and regulatory A and B subunits that modulate enzyme activity and mediate interactions with other proteins. We report here the results of a systematic analysis of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) regulatory A subunit gene family, which includes the ROOTS CURL IN(More)
The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls growth and development and regulates plant water status through an established signaling pathway. In the presence of ABA, pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor proteins inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). This, in turn, enables the activation of Sucrose Nonfermenting1-Related(More)
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a heterotrimeric serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase, comprises a catalytic C subunit and two distinct regulatory subunits, A and B. The RCN1 gene encodes one of three A regulatory subunits in Arabidopsis thaliana. A T-DNA insertion mutation at this locus impairs root curling, seedling organ elongation and apical(More)
The bacteriophage lambda N protein regulates phage development by selectively suppressing transcription termination in its host, Escherichia coli. The E. coli nus mutants prevent N activity. To provide additional information on transcription termination, we have isolated pseudo-revertants of the nusA1 mutation that restore lambda N function. One series of(More)
Pharmacological studies have led to a model in which the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) may be positively transduced via protein phosphatases of the type 1 (PP1) or type 2A (PP2A) families. However, pharmacological evidence also exists that PP1s or PP2As may function as negative regulators of ABA signaling. Furthermore, recessive disruption mutants in(More)