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A laboratory autonomic conditioning procedure was used to establish fear conditioning in human participants by pairing neutral stimuli with electric shock. Participants were also trained to make a button-press response to avoid shock. A target fear stimulus was then extinguished by presenting it without shock. The experimental group was given the(More)
PURPOSE The present study investigated phonological encoding skills in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not (CNS). Participants were 9 CWS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5) and 9 age and sex matched CNS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5). METHOD Participants monitored target phonemes located at syllable onsets and offsets of bisyllabic words. Performance in the(More)
The authors conducted research to determine the structural relationships of the craniomandibular articulation that resulted when a mandibular reference position was established. A noninvasive clinical method was used to identify and record centric maxillomandibular relation in normal subjects and a suitable reference position in subjects with derangements(More)
T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of 72 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of symptomatic patients and normal subjects was performed after they had been clinically classified. The images were then interpreted by two radiologists, blinded to the clinical classification. The technique of imaging used a head coil for bilateral imaging, allowing a(More)
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