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A depressed state can be induced in mice by forcing them to swim in a narrow cylinder from which they cannot escape. After a brief period of vigorous activity the mice adopt a characteristic immobile posture which is readily identifiable. Immobility was reduced by tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and atypical antidepressants, as well(More)
Rats and mice when forced to swim in a restricted space will rapidly cease attempts to escape and become immobile. Previous experiments have shown that immobility was selectively reduced by antidepressant agents. The present experiments show that important differences exist between strains in both the amount of immobility observed and the effects of(More)
When two parasite species are manipulators and have different definitive hosts, there is a potential for conflict between them. Selection may then exist for either avoiding hosts infected with conflicting parasites, or for hijacking, i.e. competitive processes to gain control of the intermediate host. The evidence for both phenomena depends largely on the(More)
Rats were forced to swim in a restricted space will rapidly cease apparent attempts to escape and adopt a characteristic posture which we have termed "immobility". We show in previous experiments that immobility was reduced by a variety of antidepressant agents and thus suggested that the method could serve as a screening model for antidepressants. The(More)
In the field as well as in the laboratory, human-generated stress responses are reduced in adult animals previously habituated to humans in comparison to non-habituated individuals. In birds, yolk steroid levels vary with maternal environment and condition. We tested the hypothesis that the experience of female birds with humans could affect yolk steroids(More)
There is considerable variability in the susceptibility of individuals to the adverse effects of chronic stress. In humans and other mammals, individual traits such as high anxiety are proposed as a vulnerability factor for the development of stress-related disorders. In the present study, we tested whether a similar behavioural trait in birds, higher(More)
Chronic stress is known to induce long term alterations of emotional behaviours as well as cognitive performances leading thereby to welfare or husbandry problems. These stress-induced consequences are observed following long periods of stress lasting from several weeks to several years. The current study examined whether a shorter period of stress (one(More)
Avian scientific literature includes few reports on the influence of characteristics of mothers on the behavior of their offspring. By comparing young domestic Japanese quail raised by adoptive mothers with high levels of general emotional reactivity (E+ mothers) to young raised by adoptive mothers with low levels of general emotional reactivity (E-(More)
In crustacean species with precopulatory mate-guarding, sexual size dimorphism has most often been regarded as the consequence of a large male advantage in contest competition for access to females. However, large body size in males may also be favoured indirectly through scramble competition. This might partly be the case if the actual target of selection(More)
Adult influence on song development was rarely investigated in complex social settings. We investigated the influence of the young/adult ratio on song learning in European starlings. Starling songs are composed of two categories: whistles and warbling. Warbling includes three parts: complex variable motifs, click motifs, and high frequency motifs. Song(More)