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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are receiving considerable attention in site-specific drug and nucleic acid delivery, photodynamic therapy, and photoacoustic molecular imaging. Despite these advances, nanotubes may activate the complement system (an integral part of innate immunity), which can induce clinically significant anaphylaxis. We demonstrate that(More)
UNLABELLED Carboxylated (4%) multi-walled carbon nanotubes were covalently functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol)₁₀₀₀ (PEG₁₀₀₀), PEG₁₅₀₀ and PEG₄₀₀₀ with a PEG loading of approximately 11% in all cases. PEG loading generated non-uniform and heterogeneous higher surface structures and increased nanotube width considerably, but all PEGylated nanotube(More)
The frequency of infection in 197 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery and having either no blood transfusion, transfusion with whole blood, or filtered blood free from leucocytes and platelets was investigated in a prospective randomized trial. Natural killer cell function was measured before operation and 3, 7 and 30 days after surgery in 60(More)
Several nanoparticle systems and supramolecular assemblies are under investigation as potential therapeutic entities for Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders through both brain-specific targeting and peripheral effects. However, activation of the complement system, a complex innate immune network of over 30 circulating and membrane-bound(More)
Since their introduction, poly(ethylene glycol)-phospholipid (PEG-PL) conjugates have found many applications in design and engineering of nanosized delivery systems for controlled delivery of pharmaceuticals especially to non-macrophage targets. However, there are reports of idiosyncratic reactions to certain PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines in both(More)
Administration of liposome- and polymer-based clinical nanomedicines, as well as many other proposed multifunctional nanoparticles, often triggers hypersensitivity reactions without the involvement of IgE. These anaphylactic reactions are believed to be secondary to activation of the complement system, giving rise to the release of anaphylatoxins C3a and(More)
Uncontrolled complement activation can induce many inflammatory and life threatening conditions. Accordingly, the role of complement in initiation of adverse reactions to polymers and nanoparticulate drug carriers is receiving increasing attention and has prompted extensive 'structure-immune performance' relationship studies in nanomedicine research at many(More)
During the manufacture of a proprietary peptide drug substance a new impurity appeared unexpectedly. Investigation of its chemical structure established the impurity as a beta-Ala insertion mutant of the mother peptide. The source of the beta-Ala was identified as contamination of the Fmoc-Ala-OH raw material with Fmoc-beta-Ala-Ala-OH. Further studies also(More)
A method for isolation of mitochondria from 25-100 mg skeletal muscle is described. The instrumental developments include a refined homogenization setup, special handling techniques, and equipment for biopsy storage. The preparation medium was a standard ionic medium. All fractions were assayed for marker enzymes and the data used in optimization of the(More)
In a prospective randomized trial the frequency of infectious complications and natural killer cell function were investigated in 197 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery and having either no blood transfusion (n = 93), transfusion with whole blood (n = 56), or filtered blood free from leucocytes (n = 48). Postoperative infections developed in 13(More)