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The native structure of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) contains a series of short double helices and small internal loops that are organized into five structural domains. Nucleotides within the pathogenicity domain are known to play a critical role in modulating PSTVd symptom expression, and it has been suggested that disruption of a comparatively(More)
After the unexpected appearance of lethal symptoms on tomato plants infected with the PSTVd strain Intermediate Di, viroids were isolated and sequenced. It was found that a new strain, named RG 1, had been generated spontaneously in our greenhouse. In a different series of plant passages two new strains, named QF A and QF B, were detected which coexisted(More)
Pospiviroidae, with their main representative potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), are replicated via a rolling circle mechanism by the host-encoded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (pol II). In the first step, the (+)-strand circular viroid is transcribed into a (-)-strand oligomer intermediate. As yet it is not known whether transcription is initiated by(More)
Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a component of the innate immune system, which recognizes the DNA of both pathogens and hosts. Thus, it can drive autoimmune diseases. Intracellular antibodies expressed inside the ER block transitory protein functions by inhibiting the translocation of the protein from the ER to its subcellular destination. Here, we describe(More)
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