Alicja R. Rudnicka

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OBJECTIVES To determine by how much statins reduce serum concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) events and stroke, according to drug, dose, and duration of treatment. DESIGN Three meta-analyses: 164 short term randomised placebo controlled trials of six statins and LDL cholesterol(More)
This paper presents a new supervised method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal photographs. This method uses an ensemble system of bagged and boosted decision trees and utilizes a feature vector based on the orientation analysis of gradient vector field, morphological transformation, line strength measures, and Gabor filter responses. The feature(More)
Retinal vessel segmentation algorithms are a fundamental component of automatic retinal disease screening systems. This work examines the blood vessel segmentation methodologies in two dimensional retinal images acquired from a fundus camera and a survey of techniques is presented. The aim of this paper is to review, analyze and categorize the retinal(More)
Pulmonary function measures are heritable traits that predict morbidity and mortality and define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and the ratio of FEV(1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) in the SpiroMeta consortium (n = 20,288 individuals of European ancestry). We(More)
A systematic review of cohort studies, randomized trials, voluntary notifications to national regulatory authorities, and published case reports was undertaken to assess the incidence and characteristics of adverse effects in patients treated with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, or statins. For statins other than(More)
BACKGROUND Ethnic differences in physical activity in children in the UK have not been accurately assessed. We made objective measurements of physical activity in 9-10-year-old British children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin. METHODS Cross-sectional study of urban primary school children (2006-07). Actigraph-GT1M(More)
The change in morphology, diameter, branching pattern or tortuosity of retinal blood vessels is an important indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. This paper reports an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of techniques for vessel centerlines detection and morphological bit(More)
BACKGROUND It is uncertain how best to screen pregnant women for the presence of fetal Down's syndrome: to perform first-trimester screening, to perform second-trimester screening, or to use strategies incorporating measurements in both trimesters. METHODS Women with singleton pregnancies underwent first-trimester combined screening (measurement of nuchal(More)
Pulmonary function measures reflect respiratory health and are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity in 48,201 individuals of European ancestry with follow up of the top(More)
Littmann's formula relating the size of a retinal feature to its measured image size on a telecentric fundus camera film is widely used. It requires only the corneal radius, ametropia, and Littmann's factor q obtained from nomograms or tables. These procedures are here computerized for practitioners' convenience. Basic optical principles are discussed,(More)