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Over 400 non-photosynthetic species from 10 families of vascular plants obtain their carbon from fungi and are thus defined as myco-heterotrophs. Many of these plants are epiparasitic on green plants from which they obtain carbon by 'cheating' shared mycorrhizal fungi. Epiparasitic plants examined to date depend on ectomycorrhizal fungi for carbon transfer(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS A South American cactus species, Echinopsis ancistrophora (Cactaceae), with dramatic among-population variation in floral traits is presented. METHODS Eleven populations of E. ancistrophora were studied in their habitats in northern Argentina, and comparisons were made of relevant floral traits such as depth, stigma position, nectar(More)
Biogeographical patterns and diversification processes in Andean and Patagonian flora are not yet well understood. Calceolaria is a highly diversified genus of these areas, representing one of the most specialized plant-pollinator systems because flowers produce nonvolatile oils, a very unusual floral reward. Phylogenetic analyses with molecular (ITS and(More)
Root morphology and anatomy of the myco-heterotrophic Arachnitis uniflora (Corsiaceae) were studied in relation to their association with a Glomus species (Glomeromycota). The mycorrhizal features were studied in three distinctive stages of development: (i) shoot and flower restricted to a small, underground bud; (ii) shoot and flower bud up to 1.5 cm; and(More)
We studied gland morphology, anatomy and the chemical composition of the floral fragrance in the sweat bee-pollinated orchid Cyclopogon elatus. This is apparently the first such analysis for any Cyclopogon species, and one of very few studies in which both odour and osmophore are characterised in a nectar-rewarding orchid. Structures responsible for floral(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND AND AIMS The extreme complexity of asclepiad flowers (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae) has generated particular interest in the pollination biology of this group of plants especially in the mechanisms involved in the pollination processes. This study compares two South American species, Morrenia odorata and Morrenia brachystephana, with(More)
Arachnitis uniflora, a myco-heterotrophic plant species, has fleshy tuberous roots colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal genus Glomus (Phylum Glomeromycota). These roots produce apical and lateral propagules, both reported here for the first time. The objective of the study was to characterize the ontogeny and structure of the propagules, and to(More)
The coastal deserts of northern Chile show an important latitudinal gradient of aridity with more arid areas to the north of the Atacama Desert than to the south. Several plant species have disjunct distributions that correspond with the extremes of this latitudinal gradient. In this study, using genetic (chloroplast and nuclear DNA), morphological(More)
Direct physical confrontation among conspecifics for access to mates is a form of sexual selection well known among animals, but not thought to take place in plants. Consequently, no structures are known that can be considered as weapons that evolved under such confrontation. Pollinaria of milkweeds may physically compete for access to attachment points on(More)
Geographical differentiation in floral traits across the distribution range of the Patagonian oil-secreting Calceolaria polyrhiza: do pollinators matter? † Background and Aims The underlying evolutionary processes of pollinator-driven floral diversification are still poorly understood. According to the Grant –Stebbins model speciation begins with adaptive(More)