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Stroma in the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in cancer progression, but how it promotes metastasis is poorly understood. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by many cell types and enable a potent mode of intercellular communication. Here, we report that fibroblast-secreted exosomes promote breast cancer cell (BCC) protrusive activity and(More)
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) proto-oncogene is frequently overexpressed in tumors of epithelial origin. This event is thought to be causative for tumor development and progression and henceforth associated with poor prognosis. The recent considerable interest in developing EGFR-targeting agents resulted in derivation of the monoclonal,(More)
Previous gene targeting studies have implicated an indispensable role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor angiogenesis, particularly in tumors of embryonal or endocrine origin. In contrast, we report here that transformation of VEGF-deficient adult fibroblasts (MDF528) with ras or neu oncogenes gives rise to highly tumorigenic and(More)
INTRODUCTION The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)/activin signaling pathway has a number of documented roles during wound healing and is increasingly appreciated as an essential component of multi-tissue regeneration that occurs in amphibians and fish. Among amniotes (reptiles and mammals), less is known due in part to the lack of an appropriate model(More)
The ultimate target of anti-angiogenic drugs is the genetically stable, activated endothelial cell of a newly forming tumor blood vessel, rather than the genetically unstable tumor cell population per se. This led to the notion that acquired resistance to such drugs may not develop as readily, if at all. While there is some evidence that this lack of(More)
A possible link between oncogenes and tumor angiogenesis has been implicated by the finding that expression of various oncogenes, particularly mutant ras, can lead to a marked induction of a potent paracrine stimulator of angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We sought to determine how oncogenic ras induction of VEGF is mediated at the(More)
Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling are among the novel drugs showing great promise for cancer treatment in the clinic. However, the possibility of acquired resistance to such drugs because of tumor cell genetic instabilities has not yet been explored. Here we report the experimental derivation and properties of such cell(More)
A number of drugs currently being tested in clinical trials as possible angiogenesis inhibitors were not originally developed with the intention of suppressing tumour angiogenesis. Thalidomide and interferon alpha are obvious examples of such drugs. This list of 'accidental' angiogenesis inhibitors may include established agents such as conventional(More)
The role of polarity signaling in cancer metastasis is ill defined. Using two three-dimensional culture models of mammary epithelial cells and an orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer, we reveal that Par6 signaling, which is regulated directly by TGFbeta, plays a role in breast cancer metastasis. Interference with Par6 signaling blocked TGFbeta-dependent(More)
Versican/PG-M is an extracellular matrix proteoglycan, expression of which is elevated in a variety of human tumors. The significance of this change is unclear. Here we show that versican G3-containing fragments are present at high levels in human astrocytoma. Expression of a versican G3 construct in U87 astrocytoma cells enhances colony growth in soft(More)