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Parametric and nonparametric methods have been developed for purposes of predicting phenotypes. These methods are based on retrospective analyses of empirical data consisting of genotypic and phenotypic scores. Recent reports have indicated that parametric methods are unable to predict phenotypes of traits with known epistatic genetic architectures. Herein,(More)
A mixed-model procedure for analysis of censored data assuming a multivariate normal distribution is described. A Bayesian framework is adopted which allows for estimation of fixed effects and variance components and prediction of random effects when records are left-censored. The procedure can be extended to right- and two-tailed censoring. The model(More)
β-Carotene-rich orange sweet potato (OSP) has been shown to improve vitamin A status of infants and young children in controlled efficacy trials and in a small-scale effectiveness study with intensive exposure to project inputs. However, the potential of this important food crop to reduce the risk of vitamin A deficiency in deficient populations will depend(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe an approach for assessing the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in a group, using daily intake data and the new Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). DESIGN Observing the proportion of individuals in a group whose usual intake of a nutrient is below their requirement for the nutrient is not possible in general. We argue that this(More)
The large number of available HIV-1 protease structures provides a remarkable sampling of conformations of the different conformational states, which can be viewed as direct structural information about the dynamics of the HIV-1 protease. After structure matching, we apply principal component analysis (PCA) to obtain the important apparent motions for both(More)
BACKGROUND The American Heart Association (AHA), Institute of Medicine (IOM), and US Departments of Health and Human Services and Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans all recommend that Americans limit sodium intake and choose foods that contain potassium to decrease the risk of hypertension and other adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVE We(More)
BACKGROUND US adults have access to multiple sources of folic acid. The contribution of these sources to usual intakes above the tolerable upper intake level (UL) (1000 microg/d) and to folate and vitamin B-12 status is unknown. OBJECTIVE The objective was to estimate usual folic acid intake above the UL and adjusted serum and red blood cell folate,(More)
The dendritic branching pattern of cultured hippocampal neurons was analyzed to obtain mathematical parameters that fit the time-dependent growth of dendrites under limited extrinsic influence. Cultured neurons were stained with a non-toxic carbocyanine dye (diO) and pyramidal-shaped neurons that were physically separated from one another were analyzed at(More)
Gene expression patterns were profiled during somatic embryogenesis in a regeneration-proficient maize hybrid line, Hi II, in an effort to identify genes that might be used as developmental markers or targets to optimize regeneration steps for recovering maize plants from tissue culture. Gene expression profiles were generated from embryogenic calli induced(More)
MOTIVATION Microarrays can simultaneously measure the expression levels of many genes and are widely applied to study complex biological problems at the genetic level. To contain costs, instead of obtaining a microarray on each individual, mRNA from several subjects can be first pooled and then measured with a single array. mRNA pooling is also necessary(More)