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The 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano, in Colombia, released a small volume of pyroclastic material and a disproportionately large volume of volcanic gas. Before the eruption, summit fumarole gases became less water-rich, and the sulfur/chlorine ratio increased. Remote measurements of sulfur dioxide flux after the eruption indicated(More)
, Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and plasma data are contpared with ground-based geomagnetic Dsr and AE indices to determine the causes of magnetic storms, substor-[ns, and quiet during the descending phase of the solar cycle. In this paper we focus pJ imarily on 1974 when the AZ index is anomalously high (~ = 283 nT). This year is characterized by the(More)
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