Alicia J Kowaltowski

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Mitochondria are a quantitatively relevant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the majority of cell types. Here we review the sources and metabolism of ROS in this organelle, including the conditions that regulate the production of these species, such as mild uncoupling, oxygen tension, respiratory inhibition, Ca2+ and K+ transport, and mitochondrial(More)
Reactive oxygen species are a by-product of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, derived from a small quantity of superoxide radicals generated during electron transport. We conducted a comprehensive and quantitative study of oxygen consumption, inner membrane potentials, and H(2)O(2) release in mitochondria isolated from rat brain, heart, kidney,(More)
Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is a non-selective inner membrane permeabilization that may precede necrotic and apoptotic cell death. Although this process has a specific inhibitor, cyclosporin A, little is known about the nature of the proteinaceous pore that results in MPT. Here, we review data indicating that MPT is not a consequence of the(More)
Increased replicative longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae because of calorie restriction has been linked to enhanced mitochondrial respiratory activity. Here we have further investigated how mitochondrial respiration affects yeast life span. We found that calorie restriction by growth in low glucose increased respiration but decreased mitochondrial(More)
Mitochondrially generated reactive oxygen species are involved in a myriad of signaling and damaging pathways in different tissues. In addition, mitochondria are an important target of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Here, we discuss basic mechanisms of mitochondrial oxidant generation and removal and the main factors affecting mitochondrial redox(More)
There is an emerging consensus that pharmacological opening of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion damage; however, there are widely divergent views on the effects of openers on isolated heart mitochondria. We have examined the effects of diazoxide and pinacidil on the bioenergetic properties(More)
Protection of heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury by ischemic preconditioning and K(ATP) channel openers is known to involve the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (mitoK(ATP)). Brain is also protected by ischemic preconditioning and K(ATP) channel openers, and it has been suggested that mitoK(ATP) may also play a key role in brain protection.(More)
Up to 2% of the oxygen consumed by the mitochondrial respiratory chain undergoes one electron reduction, typically by the semiquinone form of coenzyme Q, to generate the superoxide radical, and subsequently other reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide and the hydroxyl radical. Under conditions in which mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen(More)
Diazoxide opening of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) (mitoK(ATP)) channel protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury by unknown mechanisms. We investigated the mechanisms by which mitoK(ATP) channel opening may act as an end effector of cardioprotection in the perfused rat heart model, in permeabilized fibers, and in rat heart mitochondria.(More)
Caloric restriction is the most effective non-genetic intervention to enhance lifespan known to date. A major research interest has been the development of therapeutic strategies capable of promoting the beneficial results of this dietary regimen. In this sense, we propose that compounds that decrease the efficiency of energy conversion, such as(More)