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CONTEXT Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is common and debilitating. Although exposure therapy is one of the most effective forms of psychotherapy for this disorder, many patients remain symptomatic. Fear reduction in exposure therapy is similar to extinction learning, and early clinical data with specific phobias suggest that the treatment effects of exposure(More)
The goal of this study was to examine behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of involuntary orienting toward rapidly presented angry faces in non-anxious, healthy adults using a dot-probe task in conjunction with high-density event-related potentials and a distributed source localization technique. Consistent with previous studies, participants(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies investigating attentional biases in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have yielded mixed results. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies using the dot-probe paradigm in non-anxious participants have shown that the P1 component is sensitive to visuospatial attention towards emotional faces. We used a dot-probe task in(More)
OBJECTIVE There are numerous theories of panic disorder, each proposing a unique pathway of change leading to treatment success. However, little is known about whether improvements in proposed mediators are indeed associated with treatment outcomes and whether these mediators are specific to particular treatment modalities. Our purpose in this study was to(More)
Blood-injury-injection (BII) phobia presents with a unique anxiety response that often involves blood pressure drops and pronounced bradycardia, which can culminate in fainting. The current recommended treatment for BII phobia is Applied Tension (AT), a tension technique that includes in vivo exposure. However, surprisingly little empirical evidence is(More)
Subtyping panic disorder by predominant symptom constellations, such as cognitive or respiratory, has been done for some time, but criteria have varied considerably between studies. We sought to identify statistically symptom dimensions from intensity ratings of 13 DSM-IV panic symptoms in 343 panic patients interviewed with the Anxiety Disorders Interview(More)
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are similarly effective for treating panic disorder with mild or no agoraphobia, but little is known about the mechanism through which these treatments work. The present study examined some of the criteria for cognitive mediation of treatment change in CBT alone, imipramine alone, CBT plus imipramine,(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the current study was to identify individual characteristics that (a) predict symptom improvement with group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD; i.e., prognostic variables) or (b) moderate the effects of d-cycloserine (DCS) versus placebo augmentation of CBT for SAD (i.e., prescriptive variables). (More)
BACKGROUND Spontaneous or unexpected panic attacks, per definition, occur "out of the blue," in the absence of cues or triggers. Accordingly, physiological arousal or instability should occur at the onset of, or during, the attack, but not preceding it. To test this hypothesis, we examined if points of significant autonomic changes preceded the onset of(More)
BACKGROUND Given growing evidence that respiratory dysregulation is a central feature of panic disorder (PD) interventions for panic that specifically target respiratory functions could prove clinically useful and scientifically informative. We tested the effectiveness of a new, brief, capnometry-assisted breathing therapy (BRT) on clinical and respiratory(More)