Alicia Chang

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The association between staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) B and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) toxin 1 (TSST-1) in menstrual and nonmenstrual TSS was examined. Production of SEB and TSST-1 in the culture supernatants from 344 Staphylococcus aureus isolates was quantitated by noncompetitive ELISA (lower detection limit, 0.5 ng/mL for both assays). In the ELISA for(More)
Although scientific knowledge in viral oncology has exploded in the 20th century, the role of bacteria as mediators of oncogenesis has been less well elucidated. Understanding bacterial carcinogenesis has become increasingly important as a possible means of cancer prevention. This review summarizes clinical, epidemiological, and experimental evidence as(More)
Highly purified staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) was tested for its ability to induce the cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) from fractionated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells prepared from seven healthy donors. Highly purified monocytes alone or T lymphocytes alone did not produce TNF or IL-1 when(More)
BACKGROUND Patient adherence to isoniazid (INH) monotherapy for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been suboptimal despite its proven efficacy. Various strategies have been studied to improve adherence, but all have been based at a clinic or treatment program. At the Santa Clara Valley Tuberculosis Clinic, it was our practice to refer a subset of(More)
Beginning in 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) expanded the overseas presumptive treatment of intestinal parasites with albendazole to include refugees from the Middle East. We surveyed the prevalence of helminths and protozoa in recent Middle Eastern refugees (2008-2010) in comparison with refugees from other geographical regions(More)
BACKGROUND Average tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates are high in Canadian Aboriginal communities, but there is significant variability within this group. OBJECTIVE To determine whether local history of post-contact TB epidemics is predictive of contemporary epidemiology among Aboriginal communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. METHODS TB incidence,(More)
Number-specific parental language input has been shown to influence children’s number word acquisition (Suriyakham, Levine, & Huttenlocher, 2006). That is, the more frequently children hear number words and concepts, the more readily they acquire them. In a cross-national study, Mandarinspeaking Chinese parents were found to use significantly more number(More)
BACKGROUND Helicobacter pylori vaccines are under development to prevent infection. We quantified the cost-effectiveness of such a vaccine in the United States, using a dynamic transmission model. METHODS We compartmentalized the population by age, infection status, and clinical disease state and measured effectiveness in quality-adjusted life years(More)
Helicobacter pylori can cause hypochlorhydria in some hosts and predispose to diarrheal infections. We tested the hypothesis that chronic H. pylori infection increases the risk of diarrheal illness due to an acid-sensitive organism: enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). After testing healthy adult volunteers for H. pylori, 19 infected and 26 uninfected(More)
This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills was evaluated.(More)