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The inferior colliculus (IC) is primarily involved in the processing of acoustic stimuli, being in a position to send auditory information to motor centers that participate in behaviors such as prey catching and predators' avoidance. The role of the central nucleus of the IC (CIC) on fear and anxiety has been suggested on the basis that rats are able to(More)
The neural substrate underlying the aversive effects induced by ethanol abstinence is still unclear. One candidate for such effects is the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), a core structure of the brain aversion system. The main aim of this study is to examine the role of the dPAG as a possible locus of the aversive effects following abrupt alcohol(More)
In the 1970s, chronic treatment with benzodiazepines was supposed not to cause dependence. However, by the end of the decade several reports showed that the interruption of a prolonged treatment with diazepam leads to a withdrawal syndrome characterized, among other symptoms, by an exaggerated level of anxiety. In laboratory animals, signs that oscillate(More)
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate a variety of brain functions via activation of the widely expressed CB1 receptor. One site of high density of this receptor is the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a structure involved in the formation of aversive memories. The activation and blockade of CB1 receptors by systemic or hippocampal drug administrations have been(More)
Rats segregated according to low (LA) or high (HA) anxiety levels have been used as an important tool in the study of fear and anxiety. Since the efficacy of an anxiolytic compound is a function of the animal's basal anxiety level, it is possible that chronic treatment with a benzodiazepine (Bzp) affects LA and HA animals differently. Based on these(More)
Anxiety is an affective symptom common to withdrawal from acute or chronic opiate treatment. Although the potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex has been proposed as an index of increased anxiety, there are variable effects of the opiate withdrawal on the startle reflex in chronic dependence models. On the other hand, withdrawal from acute morphine(More)
The maintenance of arterial pressure at levels adequate to perfuse the tissues is a basic requirement for the constancy of the internal environment and survival. The objective of the present review was to provide information about the basic reflex mechanisms that are responsible for the moment-to-moment regulation of the cardiovascular system. We(More)
Ritalin (methylphenidate hydrochloride, MP) is a non-amphetamine psychostimulant and is the drug of choice to treat children and adults diagnosed with the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Several studies have demonstrated that rats treated with MP during early developmental stage exhibit alterations in anxiety-related processes such as an(More)
The midbrain tectum structures, dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) and inferior colliculus (IC), are involved in the organization of fear and anxiety states during the exposure to dangerous stimuli. Since opiate withdrawal is associated with increased anxiety in both humans and animals, this study aimed to investigate the possible sensitization of the neural(More)
The effects of intravenous as well as dorsal midbrain injections of morphine and chlordiazepoxide on the blood pressure rise induced by electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) were studied in unanesthetized rats. Chlordiazepoxide applied systemically or locally into the DPAG, as well as locally applied but not systemically(More)