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OBJECTIVES Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has demonstrated therapeutic effects in arthritis by inhibiting both innate and acquired immune responses. We investigated the potential effects of VIP in the regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and function in synovial fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, characterized by the presence of inflammatory synovitis accompanied by destruction of joint cartilage and bone. Treatment with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) prevents experimental arthritis in animal models by downregulation of both autoimmune and inflammatory components of the(More)
An imbalance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, autoreactive and inflammatory T helper 1 (Th1) cells, and regulatory T (Treg) cells results in the loss of immune tolerance and the subsequent appearance of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, hormones and neuropeptides are endogenous factors controlling the immune(More)
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory pathology, which develops as a result of innate immune signals, such as the activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and adaptive immune signals, including Th1 cytokine release. We have recently demonstrated in TNBS-induced colitis, a murine model of CD, that VIP plays a homeostatic role, by(More)
The contribution of VIP immune functions to the regulation of homeostasis and health is well known. Modulation of immune responses through new therapeutics is one of the main goals of physicians and scientists seeking to control inflammatory/autoimmune diseases in humans. Initial therapeutic strategies targeted adaptive immune responses; discovery of(More)
The vasoactive intestinal peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (VIP/PACAP) system is considered as a paradigm for the use of a neuroendocrine-immune mediator in therapy. We review the role of VIP in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis as a murine model of Crohn's disease. VIP treatment led to the recovery of clinical(More)
Even though in vivo imaging approaches have witnessed several new and important developments, specimens that exhibit high light scattering properties such as Drosophila melanogaster pupae are still not easily accessible with current optical imaging techniques, obtaining images only from subsurface features. This means that in order to obtain 3D volumetric(More)
INTRODUCTION Stress has been shown to be a tumor promoting factor. Both clinical and laboratory studies have shown that chronic stress is associated with tumor growth in several types of cancer. Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) is the major hypothalamic mediator of stress, but is also expressed in peripheral tissues. Earlier studies have shown that(More)
A new set of numerical methods for predictive modeling of crack propagation on aircraft structures based on discontinuous interpolation is introduced. These methods solve many shortcomings and limitations of classical FEMs, in particular in terms of accuracy and stability of the numerical approximation. The combination of these methods with appropriate(More)
Optical projection tomography (OPT) is a tool used for three-dimensional imaging of millimeter-scale biological samples, with the advantage of exhibiting isotropic resolution typically in the micron range. OPT can be divided into two types: transmission OPT (tOPT) and emission OPT (eOPT). Compared with eOPT, tOPT discriminates different tissues based on(More)