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The Hsp90 chaperone is required for the activation of several families of eukaryotic protein kinases and nuclear hormone receptors, many of which are protooncogenic and play a prominent role in cancer. The geldanamycin antibiotic has antiproliferative and antitumor effects, as it binds to Hsp90, inhibits the Hsp90-mediated conformational(More)
The crystal structure of the human p27Kip1 kinase inhibitory domain bound to the phosphorylated cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) complex has been determined at 2.3 angstrom. p27Kip1 binds the complex as an extended structure interacting with both cyclin A and Cdk2. On cyclin A, it binds in a groove formed by conserved cyclin box residues. On Cdk2,(More)
The crystal structure of the human cyclinA-cyclin-dependent kinase2 (CDK2)-ATP complex has been determined at 2.3 A resolution. CyclinA binds to one side of CDK2's catalytic cleft, inducing large conformational changes in its PSTAIRE helix and T-loop. These changes activate the kinase by realigning active site residues and relieving the steric blockade at(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-cyclin complexes require phosphorylation on the CDK subunit for full activation of their Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. The crystal structure of the phosphorylated CDK2-CyclinA-ATP gamma S complex has been determined at 2.6 A resolution. The phosphate group, which is on the regulatory T-loop of CDK2, is mostly buried, its(More)
The cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (Cdk4/6) that control the G1 phase of the cell cycle and their inhibitor, the p16INK4a tumour suppressor, have a central role in cell proliferation and in tumorigenesis. The structures of Cdk6 bound to p16INK4a and to the related p19INK4d reveal that the INK4 inhibitors bind next to the ATP-binding site of the catalytic(More)
The pocket domain of the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumour suppressor is central to Rb function, and is frequently inactivated by the binding of the human papilloma virus E7 oncoprotein in cervical cancer. The crystal structure of the Rb pocket bound to a nine-residue E7 peptide containing the LxCxE motif, shared by other Rb-binding viral and cellular proteins,(More)
DNA polymerase alpha is the only enzyme in eukaryotic cells capable of starting DNA chains de novo and is required for the initiation of SV40 DNA replication in vitro. We have cloned the 70 kDa subunit of human DNA polymerase alpha (hereafter referred to as the B subunit) and expressed it as a fusion protein in bacteria. The purified fusion protein forms a(More)
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an abundant molecular chaperone in the eukaryotic cytosol, is involved in the folding of a set of cell regulatory proteins and in the re-folding of stress-denatured polypeptides. The basic mechanism of action of Hsp90 is not yet understood. In particular, it has been debated whether Hsp90 function is ATP dependent. A recent(More)
Commitment to the cell cycle in fission yeast requires the function of the cdc10+ transcriptional activator at START. The product of the cdc18+ gene is a major downstream target of cdc10+, and transcription of cdc18+ is activated by cdc10+ during passage through START. The cdc18+ function is required for entry into S phase. In addition, the product of the(More)
Cell cycle progression is controlled by the sequential functions of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks). Cdk activation requires phosphorylation of a key residue (on sites equivalent to Thr-160 in human cdk2) carried out by the cdk-activating kinase (CAK). Human CAK has been identified as a p40(MO15)/cyclin H/MAT1 complex that also functions as part of(More)