Alicia A Levin

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Human performance on visual texture discrimination tasks improves slowly (over days) in the absence of additional training. This 'slow learning' requires nocturnal sleep after training and is limited to the region of visual space in which training occurred. Here, we tested human subjects four times in one day and found that with repeated, within-day(More)
Vitamin A (retinol) and its natural derivatives are required for many physiological processes. The activity of retinoids is thought to be mediated by interactions with two subfamilies of nuclear retinoic acid receptors, RAR and RXR. The RARs bind all-trans retinoic acid (t-RA) with high affinity and alter gene expression as a consequence of this direct(More)
The effect of phenobarbital on thyroid function and the metabolism and biliary excretion of thyroxine in rats was determined. Phenobarbital, administered for 2 weeks at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, resulted in an increase in hepatic and thyroid gland weights, decreased circulating levels of T4, T3 and rT3, and increased TSH levels in male and female rats. After(More)
Retinoid X receptors (RXRs), along with retinoic acid (RA) receptors (RARs), mediate the effects of RA on gene expression. Three subtypes of RXRs (alpha, beta, and gamma) which bind to and are activated by the 9-cis stereoisomer of RA have been characterized. They activate gene transcription by binding to specific sites on DNA as homodimers or as(More)
The utility of serum citrate as a peripheral indicator of toxicity was tested as a possible investigational probe for compounds which inhibit citrate metabolism. Fluoroacetate (FA) and its putative toxic metabolite, fluorocitrate (FC), were given to rats and dogs in a series of studies. In rats, 3 mg/kg FA (po) caused a 46% depletion in heart ATP(More)
All-trans-retinoic acid (at-RA) induces cell differentiation in a wide variety of cell types, including F9 embryonic teratocarcinoma cells, and can influence axial pattern formation during embryonic development. We now identify a novel retinoid synthetic pathway in differentiating F9 cells that results in the intracellular production of 4-oxoretinol(More)
Both 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA) and all-trans-RA (t-RA) compete for [3H]9-cis-RA binding to RA receptors (RAR alpha, beta, and gamma) in nucleosol fractions from transiently transfected COS-1 cells with IC50 values of approximately 12 and 5 nM, respectively. Curiously, 9-cis-RA competes for [3H]t-RA binding to mouse RAR alpha, beta, and gamma with IC50 values(More)
The ability of subtypes of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) singly and in combination to elicit myeloid differentiation, G1/0-specific growth arrest, and retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor protein dephosphorylation was determined in the human myeloblastic leukemia cell line HL-60 using subtype-selective retinoic acid (RA)(More)
Exposure of rats to nitrobenzene produces a degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium of the testes. Sperm production was continuously monitored in rats surgically prepared by anastomosing the vas deferentia with the urinary bladder to evaluate the reversibility of nitrobenzene toxicity. Rates of sperm production were monitored by collecting urine and(More)
Retinoids cause differentiation in embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, thus mimicking events in mammalian development. Here, we show that retinoids also cause apoptosis in P19 EC cells. Characteristic DNA fragmentation was observed within 36 h after addition of retinoic acid (RA). Synthetic retinoids that are selective for RA receptors (RAR) were also effective(More)