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To examine the role of the mitochondrial polymerase (Pol gamma) in clinically observed toxicity of nucleoside analogs used to treat AIDS, we examined the kinetics of incorporation catalyzed by Pol gamma for each Food and Drug Administration-approved analog plus 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil (FIAU),(More)
We have examined the ability of the human mitochondrial DNA polymerase to correct errors in DNA sequence using single turnover kinetic methods. The rate of excision of single-stranded DNA ranged from 0.07 to 0.17 x s(-1), depending on the identity of the 3'-base. Excision of the 3'-terminal base from correctly base paired DNA occurred at a rate of 0.05 x(More)
We have reconstituted the holoenzyme of the human mitochondrial DNA polymerase from cloned and overexpressed catalytic and accessory subunits. We have examined the polymerization activity of the catalytic subunit alone and of the holoenzyme to establish the function of the accessory subunit in this two subunit enzyme. The accessory subunit associates with(More)
Several of the nucleoside analogs used in the treatment of AIDS exhibit a delayed clinical toxicity limiting their usefulness. The toxicity of nucleoside analogs may be related to their effects on the human mitochondrial DNA polymerase (Pol gamma), the polymerase responsible for mitochondrial DNA replication. Among the AIDS drugs approved by the FDA for(More)
Saliva was collected from 4 species of mosquitoes intrathoracically inoculated with West Nile virus (WNV). The amount of infectious virus in the saliva was quantified by plaque assay and the number of WNV genomic equivalents (GE) was measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Ochlerotatus triseriatus had the greatest mean amount of(More)
Faulty replication of the human mitochondrial genome is thought to be the cause of many diseases; moreover, the low selectivity of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase has been implicated as the cause of many side effects observed in the treatment of viral infections such as HIV. To better understand how the mitochondrial genome is replicated, we cloned a cDNA(More)
We have examined the fidelity of polymerization catalyzed by the human mitochondrial DNA polymerase using wild-type and exonuclease-deficient (E200A mutation) forms of recombinant, reconstituted holoenzyme. Each of the four nucleotides bind and incorporate with similar kinetics; the average dissociation constant for ground state binding is 0.8 microm, and(More)
West Nile (WN) virus was introduced into the United States in 1999, when the first human cases of WN fever and encephalitis appeared in New York City. From there, the virus has spread throughout North America, in some areas cocirculating with the related flavivirus St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus. Public health laboratories currently use an(More)
We consider two-component block Gibbs sampling for a Bayesian hierarchical version of the normal theory general linear model. This model is practically relevant in the sense that it is general enough to have many applications and in that it is not straightforward to sample directly from the corresponding posterior distribution. There are two possible orders(More)
It is common practice in Markov chain Monte Carlo to update the simulation one variable (or sub-block of variables) at a time, rather than conduct a single full-dimensional update. When it is possible to draw from each full-conditional distribution associated with the target this is just a Gibbs sampler. Often at least one of the Gibbs updates is replaced(More)