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PURPOSE One cellular consequence of status epilepticus is apoptosis in the hippocampal CA3 subfield. We evaluated the hypothesis that the repertoire of cellular events that underlie such elicited cell death entails mitochondrial dysfunction induced by an excessive production of nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II)-derived NO, increased superoxide anion(More)
BACKGROUND Status epilepticus (SE) is an acute, prolonged epileptic crisis with a mortality rate of 20-30%; the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We assessed the hypothesis that brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation occurs during SE because of oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key nucleus of the baroreflex loop;(More)
Neuroadaptation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a central component of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, has been implicated in the development of cocaine-induced psychomotor sensitization and relapse to cocaine seeking. However, little is known about the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying such adaptation. Using a mouse model of behavioral(More)
PURPOSE Prolonged and continuous epileptic seizure (status epilepticus) results in cellular changes that lead to neuronal damage. We investigated whether these cellular changes entail mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural damage in the hippocampus, by using a kainic acid (KA)-induced experimental status epilepticus model. METHODS In Sprague-Dawley(More)
Epilepsy is considered one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide. The burst firing neurons associated with prolonged epileptic discharges could lead to a large number of changes with events of cascades at the cellular level. From its role as the cellular powerhouse, mitochondria also play a crucial role in the mechanisms of cell death.(More)
Whereas status epilepticus, or the condition of continuous epileptic seizures, produces a characteristic pattern of preferential neuronal cell loss in the hippocampus, the underlying mechanism is still unsettled. Based on an experimental model of temporal lobe status epilepticus, we demonstrated previously that prolonged seizures prompted an overproduction(More)
BACKGROUND Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common form of focal epilepsy. Serum biomarkers to predict cognitive performance in TLE patients without psychiatric comorbidities and the link with gray matter (GM) atrophy have not been fully explored. METHODS Thirty-four patients with TLE and 34 sex - and age-matched controls were enrolled for standardized(More)
We evaluated the distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the medullary origin of sympathetic neurogenic vasomotor tone, and the contribution of NOS III to the cardiovascular actions of endogenous NO in the RVLM. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or(More)
It is well-known from animal and human studies that, as a central nervous stimulant, cocaine induces electroencephalographic (EEG) desynchronization. Cocaine also purportedly increases sexual behavior as an aphrodisiac. Whether the effects of cocaine on EEG activity and penile erection are mechanistically linked, however, remains to be fully elucidated. We(More)
As much as brain stem death is currently the clinical definition of death in many countries and is a phenomenon of paramount medical importance, there is a dearth of information on its mechanistic underpinnings. A majority of the clinical studies are concerned only with methods to determine brain stem death. Whereas a vast amount of information is available(More)