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Converging evidence suggests that the accumulation of cerebral amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) reflects an imbalance between the production and degradation of this self-aggregating peptide. Upregulation of proteases that degrade Abeta thus represents a novel therapeutic approach to lowering steady-state Abeta levels, but the(More)
Status epilepticus results in preferential neuronal cell loss in the hippocampus. We evaluated the hypothesis that the repertoire of intracellular events in the vulnerable hippocampal CA3 subfield after induction of experimental temporal lobe status epilepticus entails upregulation of nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II), followed by the release of(More)
BACKGROUND Status epilepticus (SE) is an acute, prolonged epileptic crisis with a mortality rate of 20-30%; the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We assessed the hypothesis that brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation occurs during SE because of oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key nucleus of the baroreflex loop;(More)
PURPOSE One cellular consequence of status epilepticus is apoptosis in the hippocampal CA3 subfield. We evaluated the hypothesis that the repertoire of cellular events that underlie such elicited cell death entails mitochondrial dysfunction induced by an excessive production of nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II)-derived NO, increased superoxide anion(More)
Neuroadaptation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a central component of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, has been implicated in the development of cocaine-induced psychomotor sensitization and relapse to cocaine seeking. However, little is known about the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying such adaptation. Using a mouse model of behavioral(More)
Epilepsy is considered one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide. The burst firing neurons associated with prolonged epileptic discharges could lead to a large number of changes with events of cascades at the cellular level. From its role as the cellular powerhouse, mitochondria also play a crucial role in the mechanisms of cell death.(More)
PURPOSE Prolonged and continuous epileptic seizure (status epilepticus) results in cellular changes that lead to neuronal damage. We investigated whether these cellular changes entail mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural damage in the hippocampus, by using a kainic acid (KA)-induced experimental status epilepticus model. METHODS In Sprague-Dawley(More)
Status epilepticus induces subcellular changes that may lead to neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. However, the mechanism of seizure-induced neuronal cell death remains unclear. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in selected regions of the brain and is emerged as an endogenous neuroprotective molecule in many neurological(More)
Whereas status epilepticus, or the condition of continuous epileptic seizures, produces a characteristic pattern of preferential neuronal cell loss in the hippocampus, the underlying mechanism is still unsettled. Based on an experimental model of temporal lobe status epilepticus, we demonstrated previously that prolonged seizures prompted an overproduction(More)
BACKGROUND Both overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative injury of cardiovascular and pulmonary systems contribute to fatal cardiovascular depression during endotoxemia. We investigated in the present study the relative contribution of oxidative stress and NO to cardiovascular depression during different stages of endotoxemia, and delineated their(More)