Learn More
We believe that names have a powerful influence on the experiments we do and the way in which we think. For this reason, and in the light of new evidence about the function and evolution of the vertebrate brain, an international consortium of neuroscientists has reconsidered the traditional, 100-year-old terminology that is used to describe the avian(More)
Fear conditioning represents the process by which a neutral stimulus comes to evoke fear following its repeated pairing with an aversive stimulus. Although fear conditioning has long been considered a central pathogenic mechanism in anxiety disorders, studies employing lab-based conditioning paradigms provide inconsistent support for this idea. A(More)
The standard nomenclature that has been used for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures in birds is based on flawed assumptions of homology to mammals. In particular, the outdated terminology implies that most of the avian telencephalon is a hypertrophied basal ganglia, when it is now clear that most of the avian telencephalon is(More)
Many vertebrates generate blinks as a component of saccadic gaze shifts. We investigated the nature of this linkage between saccades and blinking in normal humans. Activation of the orbicularis oculi, the lid closing muscle, EMG occurred with 97% of saccadic gaze shifts larger than 33 degrees. The blinks typically began simultaneously with the initiation of(More)
The distribution of cholinergic neurons was studied in painted and red-eared turtles using antisera against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). The results showed that the organization of cholinergic systems in the central nervous system of turtles was remarkably similar to that previously described in diverse other species. For example, the present studies(More)
Hyperexcitable reflex blinks are a cardinal sign of Parkinson's disease. We investigated the neural circuit through which a loss of dopamine in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) leads to increased reflex blink excitability. Through its inhibitory inputs to the thalamus, the basal ganglia could modulate the brainstem reflex blink circuits via(More)
A reflex blink typically inhibits subsequent blinks. In this study, we investigated whether the nature and time course of this inhibition vary when different combinations of blink-evoking stimuli are used. We used the paired stimulus paradigm, in which two blink-evoking stimuli-a conditioning stimulus followed by a test stimulus-are presented with a variety(More)
The present research was undertaken to determine whether acetylcholine plays a role in memory for a maze in turtles. Cholinergic cells have been observed in the basal forebrain of turtles, and the basal forebrain of turtles projects to the dorsal cortex, a region that has been implicated in associative function. In Experiment 1, turtles were trained on an(More)
Many of the assumptions of homology on which the standard nomenclature for the cell groups and fiber tracts of avian brains have been based are in error, and as a result that terminology promotes misunderstanding of the functional organization of avian brains and their evolutionary relationship to mammalian brains. Recognizing this problem, a number of(More)
The ability to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) as bitter is determined genetically. The present study investigated whether this genetic ability was correlated with alcoholism and/or depression. Four groups of community college students (n = 25 each) were constituted based on the presence or absence of alcoholism and/or depression in themselves or their(More)