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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. In this clinical setting, the risk of protein-energy wasting is high because of the metabolic derangements of the uremic syndrome, the difficulties in nutrient needs estimation, and the possible negative effects of renal replacement therapy itself on nutrient balance. No(More)
Recent studies have highlighted the close relationship between the kidney and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract--frequently referred to as the kidney--gut axis--in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this regard, two important pathophysiological concepts have evolved: (i) production and accumulation of toxic end-products derived from increased(More)
MAIN PROBLEM In patients with Acute Kidney Injury there is a lack of nutritional variables that can assess nutritional status, more specifically lean body mass (LBM) and skeletal muscle mass, at the individual level. In this clinical setting, ultrasound (US)) of the quadriceps femoris could represent a widely available, non-invasive, affordable, and(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS In patients on chronic dialysis a sedentary lifestyle is a strong, yet potentially modifiable, predictor of mortality. The present single-center pilot study evaluated social, psychological and clinical barriers that may hinder physical activity in this population. METHODS We explored the association between barriers to physical activity(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Protein-Energy Wasting (PEW) is the depletion of protein/energy stores observed in the most advanced stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). PEW is highly prevalent among patients on chronic dialysis, and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, high morbidity/mortality rates and increased healthcare costs. This narrative review was(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Abnormalities of blood glucose (BG) concentration (hyper- and hypoglycemia), now referred to with the cumulative term of dysglycemia, are frequently observed in critically ill patients, and significantly affect their clinical outcome. Acute kidney injury (AKI) may further complicate glycemic control in the same clinical setting. This(More)
Metabolic acidosis is frequently observed in clinical practice, especially among critically ill patients and/or in the course of renal failure. Complex mechanisms are involved, in most cases identifiable by medical history, pathophysiology-based diagnostic reasoning and measure of some key acid-base parameters that are easily available or calculable. On(More)
Protein Energy Wasting (PEW) is a pathological condition characterized by a progressive reduction of protein and energy stores. PEW has a high prevalence among patients with CKD/ESRD (Chronic Kidney Disease/End Stage Renal Disease) and is closely associated with adverse clinical outcomes and increased rate of hospitalization, complications and mortality.(More)
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of kidney disease [chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD)] and are both characterized by an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Diabetes and kidney disease are also commonly associated with a chronic inflammatory state, which is now considered a non-traditional risk(More)
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEW) is highly prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is associated with a significant increase of the already high mortality and morbidity risk typical of this clinical setting. Since a key mechanism of PEW in ESRD is inadequate nutrient intake, oral nutritional supplements are extensively employed, and(More)