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Recent studies demonstrated that proinflammatory migration inhibitory factor(MIF) blocks p53-dependent apoptosis and interferes with the tumor suppressor activity of p53. To explore the mechanism underlying this MIF-p53 relationship, we studied spontaneous tumorigenesis in genetically matched p53-/- and MIF-/-p53-/- mice. We show that the loss of MIF(More)
The induction of apoptosis by p53 in response to cellular stress is its most conserved function and crucial for p53 tumor suppression. We recently reported that p53 directly induces oligomerization of the BH1,2,3 effector protein Bak, leading to outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (OMMP) with release of apoptotic activator proteins. One important(More)
Macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF) is an upstream regulator of innate immunity and a potential molecular link between inflammation and cancer. The unusual structural homology between MIF and certain tautomerases, which includes both a conserved substrate-binding pocket and a catalytic N-terminal proline (Pro1), has fueled speculation that an(More)
Previous studies showed that p53 plays a central role in G1 and DNA damage checkpoints, thus contributing to genomic stability. We show here that p73 also plays a role in genomic integrity but this mechanism is manifest only when p53 is lost. Isolated p73 loss in primary cells does not induce genomic instability. Instead, it results in impaired(More)
Mice engineered to express c-Myc in B cells (Emu-myc mice) develop lethal lymphomas in which the gene encoding the p53 tumor suppressor is frequently mutated. Whether the p53 homolog p73 also functions as a tumor suppressor in vivo remains controversial. Here we have shown that p73 loss does not substantially affect disease onset and mortality in Emu-myc(More)
Somatic cells can be converted into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by forced expression of various combinations of transcription factors, but the molecular mechanisms of reprogramming are poorly understood. Specifically, evidence that the reprogramming process can take many distinct routes only begins to emerge. It is definitively established that(More)
Genetically or epigenetically defined reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer cells. However, a causal association between genome reprogramming and cancer has not yet been conclusively established. In particular, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie metastasis of cancer, and even less is known about the identity of metastasizing cancer cells. In(More)
Although much is known about the underlying mechanisms of p53 activity and regulation, the factors that influence the diversity and duration of p53 responses are not well understood. Here we describe a unique mode of p53 regulation involving alternative splicing of the TP53 gene. We found that the use of an alternative 3' splice site in intron 6 generates a(More)
In p53-dependent apoptosis in response to genotoxic and hypoxic stress, a fraction of induced wild-type p53 rapidly translocates to mitochondria, triggering a rapid first wave of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and apoptosis that is later fortified by the transcriptional program of p53. However, whether this direct mitochondrial program also occurs(More)