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Envelope glycoprotein M (gM) and the complex formed by glycoproteins E (gE) and I (gI) are involved in the secondary envelopment of pseudorabies virus (PrV) particles in the cytoplasm of infected cells. In the absence of the gE-gI complex and gM, envelopment is blocked and capsids surrounded by tegument proteins accumulate in the cytoplasm (A. R. Brack, J.(More)
An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using baculovirus, purified, recombinant N1 protein from A/chicken/Indonesia/PA7/2003 (H5N1) virus. The N1-ELISA showed high selectivity for detection of N1 antibodies, with no cross-reactivity with other neuraminidase subtypes, and broad reactivity with sera to N1 subtype isolates from(More)
OBJECTIVES Different inbred mouse strains but also each animal of the same strain show an individually different stress response which is influenced by genetic and environmental factors such as early life experiences. In this study, we investigated consequences of mild postnatal stress exposure on the stress coping style of adult BALB/c mice. METHODS We(More)
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is mainly controlled through biosecurity and by vaccination with live-attenuated vaccines. The chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines, although proven to be effective in experimental settings, have limited(More)
Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the(More)
Glycoprotein J (gJ) of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) represents a major viral antigen and is dispensable for replication in cell culture and chickens. We generated gJ deletion mutants derived from the United States Department of Agriculture standard challenge strain (USDA-ch), a GFP-expressing mutant GΔgJ, a gJ deletion mutant void of any(More)
The valuation and treatment of labor pains require complete morphological and anatomical informations about the neuronal systems concerned. A review is given about modern model conceptions in perception, modulation and transmission of pain, based on the latest knowledges in the pain research. The identification of central control- and modulation systems is(More)
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