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Degradation of a protein via the ubiquitin system involves two discrete steps, signaling by covalent conjugation of multiple moieties of ubiquitin and degradation of the tagged substrate. Conjugation is catalyzed via a three-step mechanism that involves three distinct enzymes that act successively: E1, E2, and E3. The first two enzymes catalyze activation(More)
Sirtuins are a unique class of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate diverse biological functions such as aging, metabolism, and stress resistance. Recently, it has been shown that sirtuins may have anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB. In contrast, we report in this study that pharmacological(More)
NOD2 is an intracellular sensor that contributes to immune defense and inflammation. Here we investigated whether NOD2 mediates its effects through control of microRNAs (miRNAs). miR-29 expression was upregulated in human dendritic cells (DCs) in response to NOD2 signals, and miR-29 regulated the expression of multiple immune mediators. In particular,(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a phylogenetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, represents an energy sensor able to adapt cellular metabolism in response to nutritional environmental variations. TCR stimulation activates AMPK, a regulatory event that is known to stimulate ATP-producing processes, possibly in anticipation of the increased(More)
TLRs 7 and 8 are pattern recognition receptors controlling antiviral host defense or autoimmune diseases. Apart from foreign and host RNA, synthetic RNA oligoribonucleotides (ORN) or small molecules of the imidazoquinoline family activate TLR7 and 8 and are being developed as therapeutic agonists. The structure-function relationships for RNA ORN and(More)
ts85, a cell line that harbors a mutant thermolabile ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1, fails to degrade short lived proteins at the restrictive temperature (Ciechanover, A., Finley, D., and Varshavsky, A. (1984) Cell 37, 57-66). However, the involvement of the ubiquitin system in the degradation of long lived proteins (most cellular proteins fall in this(More)
When S-layered strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus and Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus, possessing S-layers of different lattice type and lattice constant as well as S-(glyco)protein chemistry, and isogenic S-layerless variants were subjected to membrane vesicles (MVs) from P. aeruginosa during plaque assays on plates or CFU measurements on cell(More)
A free NH2-terminal group has been previously shown to be an obligatory signal for recognition and subsequent degradation of proteins in a partially fractionated and reconstituted ubiquitin proteolytic system. Naturally occurring proteins with acetylated NH2-termini--most cellular proteins fall in this category--were not degraded by this system. Other(More)
To measure the quality of pathology reporting of breast cancer and establish a baseline against which future changes can be measured, we audited item completeness in breast cancer reports in Australia in 1995 before the release of specific recommendations from the Australian Cancer Network. Tumour type and size were given in reports of invasive breast(More)
We have reported previously that a missense mutation in the mitochondrial fission gene Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) underlies the Python mouse model of monogenic dilated cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of the C452F mutation on Drp1 protein function and to define the cellular sequelae leading to heart failure in(More)