Sirtuins are a unique class of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate diverse biological functions such as aging, metabolism, and stress resistance. Recently, it has been shown that sirtuins may have anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB. In contrast, we report in this study that pharmacological… (More)
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) detects cytosolic DNA during virus infection and induces an antiviral state. cGAS signals by synthesis of a second messenger, cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING). We show that cGAMP is incorporated into viral particles, including lentivirus and herpesvirus virions, when these are… (More)
Immune responses at the intestinal mucosa must allow for host protection whilst simultaneously avoiding inappropriate inflammation. Although much work has focused on the innate immune functionality of hematopoietic immune cells, non-hematopoietic cell populations - including epithelial and stromal cells - are now recognized as playing a key role in innate… (More)
TLRs 7 and 8 are pattern recognition receptors controlling antiviral host defense or autoimmune diseases. Apart from foreign and host RNA, synthetic RNA oligoribonucleotides (ORN) or small molecules of the imidazoquinoline family activate TLR7 and 8 and are being developed as therapeutic agonists. The structure-function relationships for RNA ORN and… (More)
MicroRNAs are important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, which have been shown to fine-tune innate immune responses downstream of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling. This study identifies miR-650 as a novel PRR-responsive microRNA that is downregulated upon stimulation of primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs)… (More)
[This corrects the article on p. 307 in vol. 4, PMID: 24137162.].