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We examined how HLA types A1-B8-DR3 and B27 were related to progression of clinical disease and rate of loss of CD4 lymphocytes in the Edinburgh City Hospital cohort of HIV-positive patients, mainly injection drug users. Patients (n = 692) were prospectively followed from 1985 through March 1994. Accurately estimated seroconversion times were determined(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe progression and survival of individuals infected with HIV by injecting drug use in Edinburgh. DESIGN AND METHODS From 313 HIV-infected patients with retrospectively estimated narrow seroconversion intervals, 260 infected via injecting drug use in the years 1983-1985 were selected for the study group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The(More)
A multi-site sample of currently-injecting drug users (IDUs) comprising 344 men and 136 women was recruited in Edinburgh. Sixty-seven per cent of the sample said they had at some time used injecting equipment already used by another person and 25% admitted doing so in the 6 months before interview. Whereas women who injected with used equipment obtained it(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate (1) the number of current and former injecting drug users (IDU) infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) alive in Edinburgh, and (2) the total number of current injectors in the city. METHODS The number of infected IDU was estimated using a local register of HIV infections with correction for incompleteness of the register.(More)
We describe baseline characteristics, enrollment, progression and mortality of the Edinburgh City Hospital HIV cohort. There were 431 men and 191 (31%) women; 439 (71%) infected via injection drug use (IDU); 92 (15%) via homosexual intercourse; 84 (13%) via heterosexual intercourse and 7 from blood products. Median annual rate of CD4 cell loss was 49 (90%(More)
A citywide sample of injecting drug users (IDUs) who had injected in the previous 6 months was recruited in Edinburgh. Interviewers administered a questionnaire enquiring about drug use, sharing of injecting equipment, sexual behavior, and imprisonment. A specimen of saliva was assayed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) IgG. HIV antibody prevalence in(More)
Big Data is having an impact on many areas of research, not the least of which is biomedical science. In this review paper, big data and machine learning are defined in terms accessible to the clinical chemistry community. Seven myths associated with machine learning and big data are then presented, with the aim of managing expectation of machine learning(More)
AIMS To estimate the frequency of injecting and prevalence of equipment sharing and other risky injecting practices among intravenous drug users (IDUs) and to identify correlates of these behaviours. DESIGN Three cross-sectional surveys of IDUs by face-to-face interview in the years 1992-94. SETTING Multiple treatment and non-treatment sites throughout(More)
A retrospective analysis of HIV-positive patients admitted to the City Hospital, Edinburgh by 31st December 1992, 7 years after the inception of the HIV clinic, revealed that 373 patients, 72% of them injection drug users (IDUs), had required 2069 admissions (5.5/admitted patient, 3.3/clinic patient or 0.5/clinic patient/year) and had utilized 21,934 bed(More)