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OBJECTIVE To determine the characteristics, causes and outcome of severe hyponatraemia (< 125 mmol/l) in hospitalized patients, and to identify mortality predictors. DESIGN Prospective case controlled study of sequentially presenting patients with a serum sodium (Na) < 125 mmol/l. PATIENTS AND METHODS One hundred and four hyponatraemic and 104 randomly(More)
We have studied the pharmacodynamics of the 1R cis-1'R cis isomer of atracurium (51W89) in 15 healthy subjects and in 17 patients with chronic renal failure using a bolus dose of 51W89 0.1 mg kg-1 (2 x ED95). Fifteen patients with normal renal function were investigated also using an approximately equipotent dose of atracurium (0.4 mg kg-1). The compound(More)
BACKGROUND The effects of a muscle relaxant may differ in elderly compared with young adult patients for a variety of reasons. The authors compared the effects of a new muscle relaxant (cisatracurium) in young and elderly adults and used pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling to identify factors explaining differences in time course of effect. METHODS(More)
AIMS To determine the effects of hepatic cirrhosis on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of rocuronium bromide. METHODS We studied 21 healthy patients and 17 patients with mild or moderate cirrhosis (Child-Pugh Class A and B). Patients were premedicated with diazepam orally; anaesthesia was induced with fentanyl and thiopentone, and maintained with(More)
To ascertain the effects of chronic renal failure on the pharmacokinetics of 1R-cis 1'R-cis atracurium besylate (a stereoisomer, designated 51W89), we gave a bolus dose of 0.1 mg kg-1 (2 x ED95) to 17 patients with end-stage renal failure and to 15 patients with normal renal function undergoing elective surgery. All patients received thiopentone, fentanyl(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of cisatracurium (51W89) and atracurium administered by continuous infusion to critically ill patients requiring neuromuscular blocking agents to facilitate mechanical ventilation. DESIGN Open, randomized, multicenter study of patients receiving cisatracurium or atracurium infusion to facilitate(More)
We have studied 12 critically ill, sedated patients who required a neuromuscular blocking drug to assist mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit. Patients were randomized to receive an infusion of cis-atracurium 0.18 mg kg-1 h-1 (group 1, n = 6) or atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 h-1 (group 2, n = 6) preceded, if necessary, by a bolus dose of 2 x ED95 of(More)