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The present study proposes a fuzzy mathematical model of HIV infection consisting of a linear fuzzy differential equations (FDEs) system describing the ambiguous immune cells level and the viral load which are due to the intrinsic fuzziness of the immune system's strength in HIV-infected patients. The immune cells in question are considered CD4+ T-cells and… (More)

Cardiac events could be taken into account as the leading causes of death throughout the globe. Such events also trigger an undesirable increase in what treatment procedures cost. Despite the giant leaps in technological development in heart surgery, coronary surgery still carries the high risk of the mortality. Besides, there is still a long way ahead to… (More)

In this paper, a new approach for finding an approximate solution for discrete optimal control problems is introduced. In this method the problem is transformed to a continuous optimal control problem whose solution may give rise to a good approximate solution for the original problem. Then, a measure-theoretical approach is applied to solve the new… (More)

All the basic models in data envelopment analysis (DEA) divide decision making units (DMUs) in two groups: efficient DMUs and inefficient DMUs, and lack of discrimination of efficient units is a serious problem. Also in spite of completely ranking units in analytical hierarchy process (AHP), the process of making pairwise comparison matrix is based on… (More)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. In this paper, we study the dynamics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which can be controlled by vaccination as well as treatment. Initially we consider constant controls for both vaccination and treatment. In the constant controls case, by determining the basic reproduction number,… (More)

This paper presents a new approach for solving a class of infinite horizon nonlinear optimal control problems (OCPs). In this approach, a nonlinear two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP), derived from Pontryagin's maximum principle, is transformed into a sequence of linear time-invariant TPBVPs. Solving the latter problems in a recursive manner provides… (More)