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Manganese intoxication can result in a syndrome of parkinsonism and dystonia. If these extrapyramidal findings are present, they are likely to be irreversible and even progress after termination of the exposure to manganese. Clinical features are usually sufficient to distinguish these patients from those with Parkinson's disease. The neurological syndrome(More)
BACKGROUND Deep-brain stimulation is the surgical procedure of choice for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. The globus pallidus interna and the subthalamic nucleus are accepted targets for this procedure. We compared 24-month outcomes for patients who had undergone bilateral stimulation of the globus pallidus interna (pallidal stimulation) or(More)
Parkinson's disease is a common disorder that leads to motor and cognitive disability. We performed a genome-wide association study of 2,000 individuals with Parkinson's disease (cases) and 1,986 unaffected controls from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC). We confirmed associations with SNCA and MAPT, replicated an association with GAK (using data(More)
Clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) do not manifest until dopamine (DA) neuronal loss reaches a symptomatic threshold. To explore the mechanisms of functional compensation that occur in presynaptic DA nerve terminals in PD, we compared striatal positron emission tomographic (PET) measurements by using [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine ([11C]DTBZ; labeling(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene have been reported to modify risk for Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and most studies have had substantial methodological shortcomings. OBJECTIVE To better assess the role of GBA variants in altering risk(More)
Dysfunction of neostriatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) is hypothesized to underlie late-stage motor complications of Parkinson disease (PD). The authors demonstrate shortened dendrite length of MSNs that was similar in four regions of neostriatum in late-stage PD. In contrast, MSN dendrite spine degeneration was unevenly distributed with the greatest loss(More)
We studied the effect of vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene intake on the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies published between 1966 and March 2005 searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Eight studies were identified (six case-control, one cohort, and one(More)
OBJECTIVES Our objective was to compare long-term outcomes of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) for patients with Parkinson disease (PD) in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. METHODS Patients randomly assigned to GPi (n = 89) or STN DBS (n = 70) were followed for 36 months. The primary(More)
Referral-based studies indicate that a mutation (G2019S) in exon 41 of the LRRK2 gene might be a common cause of Parkinson disease (PD). The authors sequenced leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) exons 31, 35, and 41 in 371 consecutively recruited patients with PD and found mutations in six (1.6%) subjects, including two heterozygous for new putative(More)
OBJECTIVE An inversion polymorphism of approximately 900 kb on chromosome 17q21, which includes the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene defines two haplotype clades, H1 and H2. Several small case-control studies have observed a marginally significant excess of the H1/H1 diplotype among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and one reported(More)