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This paper presents a modified version of the water cycle algorithm (WCA). The fundamental concepts and ideas which underlie the WCA are inspired based on the observation of water cycle process and how rivers and streams flow to the sea. New concept of evaporation rate for different rivers and streams is defined so called evaporation rate based WCA(More)
One of the serious concerns in network design is creating an efficient and appropriate network capable of efficiently migrating the passenger's mode of transportation from private to public. The main goal of this study is to present an improved model for combining the feeder bus network design system and the railway transit system while minimizing total(More)
Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a(More)