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Mechanisms of androgen dependence of the prostate are critical to understanding prostate cancer progression to androgen independence associated with disease mortality. Transient elevation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) occurs after androgen ablation. To determine the role of TGF-beta on prostate response to androgen ablation, conditional(More)
Manipulatable models of bladder development which interrogate specific pathways are badly needed. Such models will allow a systematic investigation of the multitude of pathologies which result from developmental defects of the urinary bladder. In the present communication, we describe a model in which mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are directed to(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) isoforms are growth factors that function physiologically to regulate development, cellular proliferation, and immune responses. The role of TGF-beta signaling in mammary tumorigenesis is complex, as TGF-beta has been reported to function as both a tumor suppressor and tumor promoter. To elucidate the role of(More)
The embryonic urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM) induces prostate epithelial morphogenesis in development. The molecular signals that drive UGM-mediated prostatic induction have not been defined. We hypothesized that the TGF-beta signaling directed the prostatic induction. UGM from TGF-beta type II receptor stromal conditional knockout mice (Tgfbr2(fspKO))(More)
PURPOSE Identifying developmental proteins could lead to markers of bladder progenitor cells, which could be used to investigate bladder diseases. We recently reported a novel embryonic stem cell model in which to study differential protein expression patterns during bladder development. Differential and temporal expressions of the endodermal proteins known(More)
Inflammation is a physiological process that characterizes many bladder diseases. We hypothesized that nicotinic and estrogen signaling could down-regulate bladder inflammation. Cyclophosphamide was used to induce acute and chronic bladder inflammation. Changes in bladder inflammation were measured histologically and by inflammatory gene expression.(More)
INTRODUCTION Hemorrhage induced by prostate biopsy can interfere with the interpretation of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed 101 patients who had prostate multiparametric MRI (MP-MRI) and radical prostatectomy. RESULTS On MRI obtained within 4 weeks following the biopsy, hemorrhage was seen in 26/36 (72.2%)(More)
PURPOSE To improve spatial resolution and image quality of diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI in detecting low-risk prostate cancer (lrPC) in patients undergoing active surveillance protocol (AS-PC), we propose the application of a diffusion-prepared balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) technique capable of multishot acquisition. METHODS(More)
PURPOSE Rapid bladder growth associated, partial urethral obstruction and embryonic bladder development entail stromal-epithelial interactions involving signaling by the cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). However, to our knowledge the role of TGF-beta in bladder stromal hyperplasia and hypertrophy is not understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVES High-resolution prostate imaging may allow for detection of subtle changes in tumor size, decrease the reliance on biopsies, and help define tumor boundaries during ablation. This pilot clinical trial evaluates a novel high-resolution prostate MRI for detection of small, biopsy-proven prostate tumors. METHODS Our team developed a software that(More)