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The existence of a putative membrane estrogen receptor (ER) has been supported by studies accomplished over the past 20 yr. However, the origin and functions of this receptor are not well defined. To study the membrane receptor, we transiently transfected cDNAs for ERalpha or ERbeta into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Transfection of ERalpha resulted in(More)
The proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (EC) is an important event in angiogenesis. The synthesis of the EC growth factor, vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), is stimulated by a variety of activators; but the effects of important vasoactive peptides are not well understood, and there are no known natural inhibitors of VEGF production. We(More)
Estradiol (E2) rapidly stimulates signal transduction from plasma membrane estrogen receptors (ER) that are G protein-coupled. This is reported to occur through the transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, similar to other G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we define the signaling events that(More)
TNF-alpha plays a central role in the intestinal inflammation of various inflammatory disorders including Crohn's disease (CD). TNF-alpha-induced increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) permeability has been proposed as one of the proinflammatory mechanisms contributing to the intestinal inflammation. The intracellular mechanisms involved in(More)
Crohn's disease (CD) patients have an abnormal increase in intestinal epithelial permeability. The defect in intestinal tight junction (TJ) barrier has been proposed as an important etiologic factor of CD. TNF-alpha increases intestinal TJ permeability. Because TNF-alpha levels are markedly increased in CD, TNF-alpha increase in intestinal TJ permeability(More)
Estrogen receptors (ER) have been localized to the cell plasma membrane (PM), where signal transduction mediates some estradiol (E2) actions. However, the precise structural features of ER that result in membrane localization have not been determined. We obtained a partial tryptic peptide/mass spectrometry analysis of membrane mouse ERalpha protein. Based(More)
Evidence from in vivo studies suggests that some inputs to cardiac hypertrophy are opposed by the actions of estrogen. However, the mechanisms of E2 action in this respect are mainly unknown. An important pathway that is utilized by multiple hypertrophic stimuli involves the activation of the tyrosine phosphatase, calcineurin (PP2B). Here we show that(More)
Estrogen has been shown to affect vascular cell and arterial function in vitro and in vivo. Here we examined the ability of estradiol (E(2)) to cause rapid arterial dilation of elastic and muscular arteries in vivo and the mechanisms involved. E(2) administration caused a rapid increase in the outer wall diameter of both types of arteries in ovariectomized(More)
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a member of the natriuretic peptide family which is produced in vascular endothelial cells and may play an important paracrine role in the vasaculature. We sought to determine the regulation of CNP production by other vasoactive peptides from cultured aortic endothelial cells. The vasoconstrictors endothelin-1 and(More)
Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) was originally described as a potent vascular permeability factor (VPF) that importantly contributes to vascular pathobiology. The signaling pathways that underlie VEGF/VPF-induced permeability are not well defined. Furthermore, endogenous vascular peptides that regulate this important VPF function are(More)