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Renal arteries (RAs) dilate in response to hypoxia, whereas the pulmonary arteries (PAs) constrict. In the PA, O2 tension is detected by an unidentified redox sensor, which controls K+ channel function and thus smooth muscle cell (SMC) membrane potential and cytosolic calcium. Mitochondria are important regulators of cellular redox status and are candidate(More)
Functional closure of the human ductus arteriosus (DA) is initiated within minutes of birth by O2 constriction. It occurs by an incompletely understood mechanism that is intrinsic to the DA smooth muscle cell (DASMC). We hypothesized that O2 alters the function of an O2 sensor (the mitochondrial electron transport chain, ETC) thereby increasing production(More)
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is initiated by inhibition of O2-sensitive, voltage-gated (Kv) channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Kv inhibition depolarizes membrane potential (E(M)), thereby activating Ca2+ influx via voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. HPV is weak in extrapulmonary, conduit pulmonary arteries (PA) and strong in(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) have been identified within the developing mouse heart and differentiating pluripotent stem cells by intracellular transcription factors Nkx2.5 and Islet 1 (Isl1). Study of endogenous and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived CPCs has been limited due to the lack of specific cell surface markers to(More)
Joint injury and osteoarthritis affect millions of people worldwide, but attempts to generate articular cartilage using adult stem/progenitor cells have been unsuccessful. We hypothesized that recapitulation of the human developmental chondrogenic program using pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) may represent a superior approach for cartilage restoration. Using(More)
Intrapulmonary veins (PVs) contribute to pulmonary vascular resistance, but the mechanisms controlling PV tone are poorly understood. Although smooth muscle cell (SMC) K(+) channels regulate tone in most vascular beds, their role in PV tone is unknown. We show that voltage-gated (K(V)) and inward rectifier (K(ir)) K(+) channels control resting PV tone in(More)
With ongoing advancements in cancer-related treatments, the number of cancer survivors continues to grow globally, with numbers in the United States predicted to reach 18 million by 2020. As a result, it is expected that a greater number of patients will present with chemotherapy-related side effects. One entity in particular, chemotherapy-related(More)
Semilunar valve leaflets have a well-described trilaminar histoarchitecture, with a sophisticated elastic fiber network. It was previously proposed that elastin-containing fibers play a subordinate role in early human cardiac valve development; however, this assumption was based on data obtained from mouse models and human second and third trimester(More)
AIMS To increase the supply, many countries harvest allograft valves from explanted hearts of transplant recipients with ischaemic (ICM) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This study determines the structural integrity of valves from cardiomyopathic hearts. METHODS AND RESULTS Extracellular matrix (ECM) was examined in human valves obtained from normal,(More)