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This article surveys the literature over the period of the last decade on the emerging field of self organisation as applied to wireless cellular communication networks. Self organisation has been extensively studied and applied in adhoc networks, wireless sensor networks and autonomic computer networks; however in the context of wireless cellular networks,(More)
An economic study was conducted alongside a clinical trial at three sites in Pakistan to establish the costs and effectiveness of different strategies for implementing directly observed treatment (DOT) for tuberculosis. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three arms: DOTS with direct observation by health workers (at health centres or by community(More)
In this paper, we investigate the optimal interfrequency small cell discovery (ISCD) periodicity for small cells deployed on carrier frequency other than that of the serving macro cell. We consider that the small cells and user terminals (UTs) positions are modelled according to a homogeneous Poisson Point Process (PPP). We utilize polynomial curve fitting(More)
Conventional cellular systems are designed to ensure ubiquitous coverage with an always present wireless channel irrespective of the spatial and temporal demand of service. This approach raises several problems due to the tight coupling between network and data access points, as well as the paradigm shift towards data-oriented services, heterogeneous(More)
Soaring capacity and coverage demands dictate that future cellular networks need to soon migrate towards ultradense networks. However, network densification comes with a host of challenges that include compromised energy efficiency, complex interference management, cumbersome mobility management, burdensome signaling overheads and higher backhaul costs.(More)
A mass deployment of femtocells is anticipated to affect a number of areas more adversely, especially in the celledge of the macrocell network. In this paper, we propose a flexible frequency-partitioning scheme for OFDMA network based on cyclic difference sets. The cyclic property of these sets allows a quick construction of orthogonal patterns for the(More)
We have previously reported that leptin is expressed in adult rat brain and pituitary gland, though the role of leptin in these sites has not been determined. Leptin mRNA is developmentally regulated in the brain and pituitary of male and female rats during early postnatal development, suggesting a role in the maturation of the brain-pituitary system. Here,(More)