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Acetylcholine regulates memory encoding and retrieval by inducing the hippocampus to switch between pattern separation and pattern completion modes. However, both processes can introduce significant variations in the level of network activity and potentially cause a seizure-like spread of excitation. Thus, mechanisms that keep network excitation within(More)
Hippocampal theta oscillations (4-12 Hz) are consistently recorded during memory tasks and spatial navigation. While computational models suggested specific mechanisms for theta generation, experimental inactivation of these mechanisms did not disrupt theta, precluding definitive conclusions about their roles. We investigated this discrepancy using a(More)
The hippocampus has a critical role in processing context during the acquisition and retrieval of memories. The contextual-dependence of Pavlovian fear extinction is closely associated with the hippocampus [1]. The contextually modulated retrieval of fear extinction leads to limited benefits from exposure therapy for anxiety disorders [1]. We recast(More)
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