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PURPOSE To quantify the risks of intrauterine antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure in monotherapy and polytherapy. METHODS Data from five prospective European studies totaling 1,379 children were pooled and reanalyzed. Data were available for 1,221 children exposed to AED during pregnancy and for 158 children of unexposed control pregnancies. RESULTS(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of antiepileptic drugs, especially carbamazepine and valproate, on intelligence in prenatally exposed children of mothers with epilepsy. METHODS Intelligence of 182 children of mothers with epilepsy (study group) and 141 control children was tested in a blinded setting at preschool or school age using Wechsler Preschool(More)
111 pregnancies of epileptic women on phenytoin therapy were observed in a prospective study. Maternal serum phenytoin concentrations were measured monthly or bi-weekly during pregnancy, labor and puerperium. The concentration decreased towards the end of pregnancy and was lowest at delivery. In 48% of the patients the drug dosage had to be increased to(More)
Although maternal ingestion of antiepileptic drugs is strongly suspected of causing congenital defects, particularly oral clefts, the effect of epilepsy itself or a combined effect of drug intake and epilepsy have not been excluded as etiological factors. Very little is known about fetal oxygenation during a maternal grand mal epileptic seizure. We describe(More)
A comparison of 150 pregnancies in women with epilepsy and 150 pregnancies in matched nonepileptic control women showed similar rates of pregnancy-induced hypertension, albuminuria, premature contractions, premature labor, and bleeding in pregnancy. Duration of labor, blood loss at delivery, cesarean section rates, and vacuum extraction rates were also(More)
Clobazam was added to the previous antiepileptic drug therapy of 90 children suffering from drug resistant epilepsy. Ten patients became seizure free, although four of these later developed tolerance. Thirty-three patients experienced a decrease in seizure frequency, and 24 of these, too, developed tolerance. Forty-four patients showed no change in seizure(More)
In a prospective study, 121 children of mothers with epilepsy (study group) and 105 control children were examined in a blinded fashion at age 5 1/2 years for 80 minor physical anomalies, including nine typical features previously reported characteristic of fetal hydantoin syndrome. Of the study group, 106 children had been exposed to antiepileptic drugs(More)