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Stereotaxic surgery has been an invaluable tool in systems neuroscience, applied in many experiments for the creation of site-targeted lesions, injection of anatomical tracers or implantation of electrodes or microdialysis probes. In this protocol, we describe stereotaxic surgery optimized for gene delivery by recombinant adeno-associated viruses and(More)
We describe a powerful system for revealing the direct monosynaptic inputs to specific cell types in Cre-expressing transgenic mice through the use of Cre-dependent helper virus and a modified rabies virus. We generated helper viruses that target gene expression to Cre-expressing cells, allowing us to control initial rabies virus infection and subsequent(More)
To identify the underlying reason for the controversial performance of tetracycline (Tet)-controlled regulated gene expression in mammalian neurons, we investigated each of the three components that comprise the Tet inducible systems, namely tetracyclines as inducers, tetracycline-transactivator (tTA) and reverse tTA (rtTA), and tTA-responsive promoters(More)
Sensory experience is necessary for normal cortical development. This has been shown by sensory deprivation and pharmacological perturbation of the cortex. Because these manipulations affect the cortical network as a whole, the role of postsynaptic cellular properties during experience-dependent development is unclear. Here we addressed the developmental(More)
The cerebral vessels are innervated by sympathetic, parasympathetic, and sensory nerves. A sensory innervation of the cerebral vessels originating in the trigeminal ganglion has been described in a number of species by several investigations. It has been shown that the electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion causes an increase of cerebral cortical(More)
This study reports development of a novel method for high-resolution in vivo imaging of the function of individual mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that overcomes many limitations of available methods for recording RGC physiology. The technique combines insertion of a genetically encoded calcium indicator into RGCs with imaging of calcium responses over(More)
OBJECTIVE We wanted to compare the efficacies of 95% ethanol and 20% hypertonic saline (HS) sclerotherapies that were performed in a single session under CT guidance for the management of simple renal cysts. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective series of 74 consecutive patients (average age: 57.6 +/- 8.1 years) with simple renal cysts were enrolled in this(More)
BACKGROUND We presented abdominal liposarcoma cases diagnosed and managed in a tertiary care center and also conducted a literature review on main features of this tumor. METHODS Chart reviews of eight cases were conducted, and clinical, surgical, histopathological, and follow-up data were recorded. RESULTS Overall, complete surgical resection was(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the changes in the values of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and Doppler index measurements in the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), peritoneal dialysis (PD), and hemodialysis (HD) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty outpatients on HD (mean age 46.1 ± 16.4), 27 outpatients on PD (mean age 45 ± 12.4),(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, paraoxonase 1, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in women having early spontaneous preterm birth without clinical chorioamnionitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was prospectively administered in women referred to our obstetrics service with preterm(More)