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Hypertension affects one billion people and is a principal reversible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII), a rare Mendelian syndrome featuring hypertension, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis, has revealed previously unrecognized physiology orchestrating the balance between renal salt reabsorption and K(+) and(More)
demonstrate that the risk of cardiovascular diseases and death rises in graded fashion with increasing blood pressure (Mosterd et al., 1999; Kannel, 2000). While hy-pertension was once thought to be " essential " for perfu-sion of tissues through sclerotic and narrowed blood and Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry Yale University School of Medicine(More)
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD; MIM 263200) is a hereditary and severe form of polycystic disease affecting the kidneys and biliary tract with an estimated incidence of 1 in 20,000 live births. The clinical spectrum is widely variable: up to 50% of affected neonates die shortly after birth, whereas others survive to adulthood.(More)
Mechanisms of epithelial cell renewal remain poorly understood in the mammalian kidney, particularly in the glomerulus, a site of cellular damage in chronic kidney disease. Within the glomerulus, podocytes--differentiated epithelial cells crucial for filtration--are thought to lack substantial capacity for regeneration. Here we show that podocytes rapidly(More)
Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip(More)
Malformations of the kidney and lower urinary tract are the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease in children. Mutations in HNF1Β and PAX2 commonly cause syndromic urinary tract malformation. We searched for mutations in HNF1Β and PAX2 in North American children with renal aplasia and hypodysplasia (RHD) enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in(More)
We examined the burden of large, rare, copy-number variants (CNVs) in 192 individuals with renal hypodysplasia (RHD) and replicated findings in 330 RHD cases from two independent cohorts. CNV distribution was significantly skewed toward larger gene-disrupting events in RHD cases compared to 4,733 ethnicity-matched controls (p = 4.8 × 10(-11)). This excess(More)
We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common form of glomerulonephritis, with discovery and follow-up in 20,612 individuals of European and East Asian ancestry. We identified six new genome-wide significant associations, four in ITGAM-ITGAX, VAV3 and CARD9 and two new independent signals at HLA-DQB1 and(More)
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a complex trait determined by genetic and environmental factors. Most IgAN patients exhibit a characteristic undergalactosylation of the O-glycans of the IgA1 hinge region, which promotes formation and glomerular deposition of immune complexes. It is not known whether this aberrant glycosylation is the result of an acquired or(More)
Here we discuss recent advances in understanding the biochemical, immunologic, and genetic pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy, the most common primary glomerulonephritis. Current data indicate that at least four processes contribute to development of IgA nephropathy. Patients with IgA nephropathy often have a genetically determined increase in circulating(More)