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Pili have been shown to play an essential role in the adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to epithelial cells. However, among piliated strains, both inter- and intrastrain variability exist with respect to their degree of adhesion to epithelial cells in vitro (Virji et al., 1992). This suggests that factors other than the presence of pili per se are involved(More)
In previous studies on the colony phenotype switching of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we observed that the least virulent isolates formed greater numbers of petite colonies when grown at body temperature, 37 degrees C. To determine if there is a link between virulence and petite formation, we examined the frequency of spontaneous petite formation for virulent(More)
BACKGROUND Recombinant proteins overexpressed in E. coli are usually deposited in inclusion bodies. Cysteines in the protein contribute to this process. Inter- and intra- molecular disulfide bonds in chitinase, a cysteine-rich protein, cause aggregation when the recombinant protein is overexpressed in E. coli. Hence, aggregated proteins should be(More)
Aptamers, as a novel class of molecular probes for diagnosis, imaging and targeting therapy, have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Aptamers are generated from libraries of single-stranded nucleic acids against different molecules via the "systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment" (SELEX) method. SELEX is a repetitive process(More)
Targeting of dendritic cells (DCs) by aptamers increases antigen capture and presentation to the immune system. Our aim was to produce aptamers against DC molecules using the cell-SELEX procedure. For this purpose, 18 rounds of cell-SELEX were performed on mouse macrophage J774A.1 and CT26 as target and control cells, respectively. The selected aptamers(More)
BACKGROUND Brucellosis is one of the most common chronic diseases, with widespread distribution. In spite of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) modulated mainly via activated T-helper type 1 (Th1) cells, brucellosis can advance to chronic disease in about 10-30% of cases. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are involved the immune response to brucellosis; however,(More)
Refolding of cysteine-rich protein for establishing native conformation and a biologically active form is the most challenging step in recombinant protein synthesis. In this study, expressed vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), as a cysteine-rich protein, in a prokaryotic expression cell was refolded based on computer simulation technique and(More)
CONTEXT The immune system through T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), whereas the Th2 responses inhibit myelin degeneration. Artemisinin, as an anti-malaria as its agent, has been used widely in the treatment of malaria, shifts the lymphocyte responses from Th1 to Th2.(More)
OBJECTIVES Therapeutic approaches for multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), are accompanied by various undesirable side effects. Owing to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of walnut, we investigated its effects on the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS. METHODS After(More)
AIM Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal surgical emergencies. Early diagnosis of appendicitis can reduce perforation and mortality rate. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein has been identified as a pro-inflammatory factor and its elevated serum levels have been noted in different diseases. So, the aim of this study was to(More)