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Living organisms respond to phosphate limitation by expressing various genes whose products maintain an appropriate range of phosphate concentrations within each cell. We identified previously a two component system, which consists of histidine kinase SphS and its cognate response regulator SphR, which regulates the expression of the phoA gene for alkaline(More)
Transgenic lines of indica rice were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with the choline oxidase ( codA) gene from Arthrobacter globiformis. Choline oxidase catalyses conversion of choline to glycine betaine. Glycine betaine is known to provide tolerance against a variety of stresses. Molecular analyses of seven independent transgenic lines(More)
In multicellular organisms, the coordination of cell proliferation and expansion is fundamental for proper organogenesis, yet the molecular mechanisms involved in this coordination are largely unexplored. In plant leaves, the existence of this coordination is suggested by compensation, in which a decrease in cell number triggers an increase in mature cell(More)
Postgerminative growth of seed plants requires specialized metabolism, such as gluconeogenesis, to support heterotrophic growth of seedlings until the functional photosynthetic apparatus is established. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana fugu5 mutant, which we show to be defective in AVP1 (vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase), failed to support(More)
It is known that the reaction-center binding protein D1 in photosystem (PS) II is degraded significantly during photoinhibition. The D1 protein also cross-links covalently or aggregates non-covalently with the nearby polypeptides in PS II complexes by illumination. In the present study, we detected the adducts between the D1 protein and the other(More)
BACKGROUND Postoperative morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer varies widely across hospitals in the UK. We aimed to assess whether a newly developed score from the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI) could predict mortality from colorectal cancer surgery as accurately as the Physiology and Operative Severity Score(More)
The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 accumulates the compatible solute glucosylglycerol (GG) and sucrose under salt stress. Although the molecular mechanisms for GG synthesis including regulation of the GG-phosphate synthase (ggpS) gene, which encodes GgpS, has been intensively investigated, the role of GG in protection against salt stress remains(More)
The synthesis of DNA, RNA, and de novo proteins is fundamental for early development of the seedling after germination, but such processes release pyrophosphate (PPi) as a byproduct of ATP hydrolysis. The over-accumulation of the inhibitory metabolite PPi in the cytosol hinders these biosynthetic reactions. All living organisms possess ubiquitous enzymes(More)
Size is an important parameter in the characterization of organ morphology and function. To understand the mechanisms that control leaf size, we previously isolated a number of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with altered leaf size. Because leaf morphogenesis depends on determinate cell proliferation, the size of a mature leaf is controlled by variation in(More)
Observations of cellular organization are essential in understanding the mechanisms underlying leaf morphogenesis. These observations require several preparative steps, such as fixation and clearing of organs, and such procedures are time-consuming and labor-intensive for large-scale analyses. Thus, we have developed simple methods for the observation of(More)