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Gas holdup and mixing time were characterized in a forced circulation internal loop draft-tube reactor (unaerated aspect ratio≈ 6, downcomero-riser cross-sectional area ratio = 0.493) as functions of the forced liquid superficial velocity in the riser (ULr) and the gas superficial velocity in he riser (UGr). Data were obtained in air–water system. The(More)
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linn.) is valued for its aroma and its medicinal and therapeutic properties. A supervised feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) trained with back propagation algorithms, was applied to predict fresh weight and volume of Cuminum cyminum L. calli. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate input/output dependency of the(More)
The effect of length and position of cumin hypocotyl explants on physical and morphological properties of callus were analyzed by machine vision. Explants were selected at three levels (3, 5 and 7 mm) and set on solid media (B5 containing 0.6 mg l−1 NAA and 0.1 mg l−1 BAP) horizontally (Hp) or vertically (Vp). Results showed that mean values of fresh weight(More)
In this study, the effects of ohmic pre-drying technique on moisture ratio, drying rate, drying time, specific energy consumption, drying efficiency, and effective moisture diffusivity of tomato paste were investigated. Pre-drying experiments were carried out in an ohmic laboratory dryer at voltage gradient levels of 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 V/cm and oven(More)
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