Learn More
The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of(More)
Chemokines and their receptors function in the recruitment and activation of cells of the immune system to sites of inflammation. As such, chemokines play an important role in mediating pathophysiological events during microbial infection. In particular, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 and their cognate receptor CXCR3 have been associated with the clinical course(More)
How viral and host factors contribute to the severe pathogenicity of the H5N1 subtype of avian influenza virus infection in humans is poorly understood. We identified three clusters of differentially expressed innate immune response genes in lungs from H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1203/04) influenza virus-infected ferrets by oligonucleotide microarray analysis.(More)
It is not understood how immune inflammation influences the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). One area of strong controversy is the role of interferon (IFN) responses in the natural history of SARS. The fact that the majority of SARS patients recover after relatively moderate illness suggests that the prevailing notion of deficient(More)
Progressive immune-associated injury is a hallmark of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Viral evasion of innate immunity, hypercytokinemia and systemic immunopathology in the SARS coronavirus (SARS CoV) infected host have been suggested as possible mechanisms for the cause of severe pathology and morbidity in SARS patients. The molecular and(More)
HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus macaques experience a rapid and dramatic loss of mucosal CD4+ T cells that is considered to be a key determinant of AIDS pathogenesis. In this study, we show that nonpathogenic SIV infection of sooty mangabeys (SMs), a natural host species for SIV, is also associated with an early, severe, and persistent depletion(More)
The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic has prompted a significant need for the development of efficient, single-dose, adjuvanted vaccines. Here we investigated the adjuvant potential of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) when used with a human seasonal influenza virus vaccine in ferrets. We found that the CpG ODN-adjuvanted vaccine effectively increased antibody(More)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, double membrane vesicles derived from leukocytes, platelets, and cells of other tissues under physiological or pathological conditions. Generation of EVs in stored blood is thought to be associated with adverse effects and potentially immunosuppression in blood transfusion recipients. We measured the quantity and(More)
Studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed seronegative individuals are crucial to inform vaccine design. In the present study we demonstrated that HIV-exposed seronegative commercial sex workers produce lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines at baseline than HIV-negative control subjects. We also showed that CD4+ T cells of HIV-exposed(More)
Type I interferons (IFNs) are essential to the clearance of viral diseases, however, a clear distinction between genes upregulated by direct virus-cell interactions and genes upregulated by secondary IFN production has not been made. Here, we investigated differential gene regulation in ferrets upon subcutaneous administration of IFN-α2b and during SARS-CoV(More)