Ali Danesh

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The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of(More)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, double membrane vesicles derived from leukocytes, platelets, and cells of other tissues under physiological or pathological conditions. Generation of EVs in stored blood is thought to be associated with adverse effects and potentially immunosuppression in blood transfusion recipients. We measured the quantity and(More)
OX40 and 4-1BB are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family of costimulatory receptors whose signaling is important for differential immune responses mediated by CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Although activated T cells may acquire OX40/4-1BB double-positive phenotype and signaling from each receptor is expected to influence cell functions, the relevance(More)
Sexual contact with HIV-infected semen is a major driving force behind the global HIV pandemic. Little is known regarding the immune correlates of virus shedding in this compartment, although HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells are present in semen. We collected blood and semen from 27 chronically HIV-infected, therapy-naive men without common sexually transmitted(More)
Proteinases can influence lung inflammation by various mechanisms, including via cleavage and activation of protease-activated receptors (PAR) such as PAR2. In addition, proteinases such as neutrophil and/or Pseudomonas-derived elastase can disarm PAR2 resulting in loss of PAR2 signaling. Currently, the role of PAR2 in host defense against bacterial(More)
In terms of its highly pathogenic nature, there remains a significant need to further define the immune pathology of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection, as well as identify correlates of immunity to help develop vaccines for severe coronaviral infections. Here we use a SARS-CoV infection-reinfection ferret model and a functional genomics approach to gain(More)
Background: Interferon-a (IFN-a) treatment suppresses HIV-1 viremia and reduces the size of the HIV-1 latent reservoir. Therefore, investigation of the molecular and immunologic effects of IFN-a may provide insights that contribute to the development of novel prophylactic, therapeutic and curative strategies for HIV-1 infection. In this study, we(More)
BACKGROUND Problematic internet use is on the increase and has caused serious problems in many areas. This issue seems to be more important for medical students. OBJECTIVES This study was designed to explore the prevalence of internet addiction and its related factors among the students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. MATERIALS AND METHODS A(More)
Identifying host immune determinants governing HIV transcription, latency and infectivity in vivo is critical to developing an HIV cure. Based on our recent finding that the host factor p21 regulates HIV transcription during antiretroviral therapy (ART), and published data demonstrating that the human carbohydrate-binding immunomodulatory protein galectin-9(More)
CD4+ T cells are critically important in HIV infection, being both the primary cells infected by HIV and likely playing a direct or indirect role in helping control virus replication. Key areas of interest in HIV vaccine research are mechanisms of viral escape from the immune response. Interestingly, in HIV infection it has been shown that peptide sequence(More)