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A fundamental challenge in understanding how dendritic spine morphology controls learning and memory has been quantifying three-dimensional (3D) spine shapes with sufficient precision to distinguish morphologic types, and sufficient throughput for robust statistical analysis. The necessity to analyze large volumetric data sets accurately, efficiently, and(More)
BACKGROUND Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are alternative treatments for multivessel coronary disease. Although the procedures have been compared in several randomised trials, their long-term effects on mortality in key clinical subgroups are uncertain. We undertook a collaborative analysis of data from(More)
Anatomical alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are associated with hypothalamopituitary adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, altered stress hormone levels, and psychiatric symptoms of stress-related mental illnesses. Functional imaging studies reveal impairment and shrinkage of the mPFC in such conditions, and these findings are paralleled by(More)
Precise quantification of complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from laser scanning microscopy (LSM) images is increasingly necessary in understanding normal function and pathologic processes in biology. This protocol describes a versatile shape analysis algorithm, Rayburst sampling, that generates automated 3D measurements from LSM images. Rayburst(More)
Experimental and theoretical studies demonstrate that both global dendritic branching topology and fine spine geometry are crucial determinants of neuronal function, its plasticity and pathology. Importantly, simulation studies indicate that the interaction between local and global morphologic properties is pivotal in determining dendritic information(More)
Tracing the centerline of the dendritic arbor of neurons is a powerful technique for analyzing neuronal morphology. In the various neuron tracing algorithms in use nowadays, the competing goals of computational efficiency and robustness are generally traded off against each other. We present a novel method for tracing the centerline of a neuron from(More)
Cognitive impairment in normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases is accompanied by altered morphologies on multiple scales. Understanding of the role of these structural changes in producing functional deficits in brain aging and neuropsychiatric disorders requires accurate three-dimensional representations of neuronal morphology, and realistic(More)
In neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines undergo significant pathological changes. Because of the determinant role of these highly dynamic structures in signaling by individual neurons and ultimately in the functionality of neuronal networks that mediate cognitive functions, a detailed(More)
The general organization of neocortical connectivity in rhesus monkey is relatively well understood. However, mounting evidence points to an organizing principle that involves clustered synapses at the level of individual dendrites. Several synaptic plasticity studies have reported cooperative interaction between neighboring synapses on a given dendritic(More)
Morphological features such as size, shape and density of dendritic spines have been shown to reflect important synaptic functional attributes and potential for plasticity. Here we describe in detail a protocol for obtaining detailed morphometric analysis of spines using microinjection of fluorescent dyes, high-resolution confocal microscopy, deconvolution(More)