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By means of Golgi staining and gold-toning, we have found an interneuron in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus which forms synapses exclusively on the axon initial segments of pyramidal neurons. An individual initial segment receives up to 30 symmetrical synapses from one axo-axonic cell. Each axo-axonic cell is in synaptic contact with the axon(More)
The coexistence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), and cholecystokinin (CCK)- or somatostatin-immunoreactive material in the same neurons was studied in the hippocampus and visual cortex of the cat. One-micrometer-thick serial sections of the same neuron were reacted to reveal different antigens by the unlabeled antibody(More)
Golgi-impregnated and gold-toned preparations of cat hippocampus were studied under the light and electron microscope in order to characterize synapses in contact with the axon initial segments of pyramidal neurons. The initial segment of the axon emits spine-like appendages and it was sometimes seen to be in apparent contact with thin varicose fibers that(More)
The ultrastructural features and synaptic relationships of cholecystokinin (CCK)-immunoreactive cells of rat and cat hippocampus were studied using the unlabeled antibody immunoperoxidase technique and correlated light and electron microscopy. CCK-positive perikarya of variable shape and size were distributed in all layers and were particularly concentrated(More)
Using a standardized rat model of contusive spinal cord injury (SCI; [Gorio A, Gokmen N, Erbayraktar S, Yilmaz O, Madaschi L, Cichetti C, Di Giulio AM, Vardar E, Cerami A, Brines M (2002) Recombinant human erythropoietin counteracts secondary injury and markedly enhances neurological recovery from experimental spinal cord trauma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A(More)
The aim of the study was the assessment of the effects of adult neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation in a mouse model of spinal cord injury (SCI). The contusion injury was performed by means of the Infinite Horizon Device to allow the generation of reproducible traumatic lesion to the cord. We administered green fluorescent-labeled (GFP-)NSCs either by(More)
We have studied the effects of 25 mM potassium, electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve, and crude black widow spider venom on the ultrastructure, electrophysiology, and acetylcholine (ACh) contents of mouse diaphragms. About 65% of the ACh in diaphragms is contained in a depletable store in the nerve terminals. The rest of the ACh is contained in a(More)
Acute lesions of the spinal cord lead to dramatic changes in neuronal function. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of neurotrophic factors in the action of the drug of choice for the treatment of such an emergency, i.e. the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone is compared to erythropoietin, a cytokine recently shown to markedly shorten(More)
The study on wobbler mouse has shown that the combined treatment with low doses of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) fully prevented motor neurone death and forelimb impairment up to 9-12 weeks of a mouse's life. The effect was accompanied by the prevention of the early hypertrophy of wobbler neurones, an effect likely due(More)
Inflammation plays a major pathological role in spinal cord injury (SCI). Although antiinflammatory treatment using the glucocorticoid methyprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) improved outcomes in several multicenter clinical trials, additional clinical experience suggests that MPSS is only modestly beneficial in SCI and poses a risk for serious(More)