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Activating point mutations of the BRAF gene have been recently reported in papillary thyroid carcinomas. In this study, we analyzed 320 thyroid tumors and six anaplastic carcinoma cell lines and detected BRAF mutations in 45 (38%) papillary carcinomas, two (13%) poorly-differentiated carcinomas, three (10%) anaplastic carcinomas, and five (83%) thyroid(More)
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1) is a putative tumor suppressor for human cancer. The mechanism underlying p27(kip1) deregulation in human cancer is, however, poorly understood. We demonstrate that the serine/threonine kinase Akt regulates cell proliferation in breast cancer cells by preventing p27(kip1)-mediated growth arrest. Threonine 157(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs involved in a wide range of basic processes such as cell proliferation, development, apoptosis and stress response. It has recently been found that they are also abnormally expressed in many types of human cancer. We analyzed the genome-wide miRNA expression profile in human thyroid papillary(More)
Multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B (MEN2A and MEN2B) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma are dominantly inherited cancer syndromes. All three syndromes are associated with mutations in RET, which encodes a receptor-like tyrosine kinase. The altered RET alleles were shown to be transforming genes in NIH 3T3 cells as a consequence of(More)
We recently detected a novel activated oncogene by transfection analysis on NIH 3T3 cells in five out of 20 primary human thyroid papillary carcinomas and in the available lymph node metastases. We designated this transforming gene PTC (for papillary thyroid carcinoma). Here we describe the molecular cloning and sequencing of the gene. The new oncogene(More)
RET/papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) oncogenes, generated by recombination of the tyrosine kinase-encoding domain of RET with different heterologous genes, are prevalent in papillary carcinomas of the thyroid. Point mutations of RET cause multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) familial cancer syndrome and are found in sporadic medullary thyroid(More)
TSH via cAMP, and various growth factors, in cooperation with insulin or IGF-I stimulate cell cycle progression and proliferation in various thyrocyte culture systems, including rat thyroid cell lines (FRTL-5, WRT, PC Cl3) and primary cultures of rat, dog, sheep and human thyroid. The available data on cell signaling cascades, cell cycle kinetics, and cell(More)
CONTEXT Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior and BDNF levels are decreased in the brain and plasma of suicide subjects. So far, the mechanisms leading to downregulation of BDNF expression are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To test the hypothesis that alterations of DNA methylation could(More)
The high mobility group A (HMGA) non-histone chromatin proteins alter chromatin structure and thereby regulate the transcription of several genes by either enhancing or suppressing transcription factors. This protein family is implicated, through different mechanisms, in both benign and malignant neoplasias. Rearrangements of HMGA genes are a feature of(More)
An imbalance of immunoregulatory factors is believed to contribute to uncontrolled mucosal Th1 cell activation in Crohn's disease (CD). IL-18, a macrophage-like cell-derived cytokine, is involved in Th1 clone development, and IFN-gamma production. Therefore, IL-18 expression was investigated in CD. Whole mucosal intestinal tissue and lamina propria(More)