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In 31 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), 19 with probable vascular dementia (VaD) and 20 with Possible AD and Possible VaD, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau levels hyperphosphorylated at threonine 181 (Ptau) were measured by ELISA. Thirty-six age-matched subjects were used as controls. The severity of the cognitive decline was assessed at the(More)
Subjects with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection display increased activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may play a role in both HIV-related neurodegenerative processes and disease progression. It has been speculated that the HIV coat protein gp120 may be responsible for these changes, and previous experimental(More)
Chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in humans. However, conflicting data exist in the literature, with particular regard to studies performed in actively drinking or withdrawn alcoholics; in addition, the frequent presence of depressive disturbances(More)
Migraine is an extremely common disorder. The underlying mechanisms of this chronic illness interspersed with acute symptoms appear to be increasingly complex. An important aspect of migraine heterogeneity is comorbidity with other neurological diseases, cardiovascular disorders, and psychiatric illnesses. Depressive disorders are among the leading causes(More)
Although there are various ways in which the regulation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) may be investigated, the most direct is by the study of CRF secretion from rat hypothalami incubated in vitro. Using this technique, we have found stimulation of secretion by noradrenaline, acetylcholine, serotonin, neuropeptide Y, and interleukins 1(More)
It is given a structural conjugacy invariant in the set of pseudowords whose finite factors are factors of a given subshift. Some profinite semigroup tools are developed for this purpose. With these tools a shift equivalence invariant of sofic subshifts is obtained, improving an invariant introduced by Béal, Fiorenzi and Perrin using different techniques.(More)
Beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta) are major constituents of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain and contribute to neurodegeneration, operating through activation of apoptotic pathways. It has been proposed that Abeta induces death by oxidative stress, possibly through the generation of peroxynitrite from superoxide and nitric oxide. Estrogen is(More)
It is well established that a reciprocal control exists between the brain and glucocorticoid hormones. The brain regulates adrenocortical function via hypothalamic corticotrophin releasing hormone-41 (CRH-41), glucocorticoids act at specific receptors in the hippocampus, thus promoting negative feedback mechanisms. Because the hippocampus is a major site(More)
It is well-established that 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E(2)) confers neuroprotection to male and female rats exposed to focal cerebral ischemia, while less is known about the effects of the hormone under conditions of transient global ischemia. Since translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol is a critical step in apoptotic cell death(More)