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A sharp interface immersed boundary method for simulating incompressible viscous flow past three-dimensional immersed bodies is described. The method employs a multi-dimensional ghost-cell methodology to satisfy the boundary conditions on the immersed boundary and the method is designed to handle highly complex three-dimensional, stationary, moving and/or(More)
We have studied individual keratins of an elasmobranch, the shark Scyliorhinus stellaris (the lesser-spotted dogfish). From various shark tissues, notably skin and stomach, cytoskeletal proteins were isolated and then separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Using complementary keratin blot-binding assays and immunoblotting, among(More)
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based analysis of the propulsive forces generated by two distinct styles of arm-pulls in front-crawl as well as backstroke is presented in this Technical Brief. Realistic models of the arm pulling through water are created by combining underwater video footage and laser-scans of an arm with computer animation. The(More)
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